Epidemiology of Keratoconus

  • Ramez BarbaraEmail author
  • A. M. J. Turnbull
  • A. Malem
  • D. F. Anderson
  • P. Hossain
  • A. Konstantopoulos
  • Adel Barbara


The burden of a disease is determined by its incidence, prevalence and impact an individual and society which in turn inform the provision of relevant healthcare services including screening programmes, primary and specialist medical care. Genetic and environmental factors may affect the incidence and prevalence of keratoconus and it has become apparent that previous estimates of prevalence have been overly conservative, as new diagnostic modalities have enabled earlier detection of this condition and also the diagnosis of sub-clinical, or ‘forme fruste’ disease. Improved knowledge of the epidemiology of keratoconus has increased our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis, and early diagnosis provides a golden opportunity to dramatically improve the disease course and prognosis with early interventions. Thus, attention should now shift to the potential value of screening programs in areas of high prevalence.


Epidemiology Keratoconus Incidence Prevalence Genetics Environmental Eye rubbing Systemic associations 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramez Barbara
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. M. J. Turnbull
    • 1
  • A. Malem
    • 2
  • D. F. Anderson
    • 1
  • P. Hossain
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. Konstantopoulos
    • 1
  • Adel Barbara
    • 4
  1. 1.Southampton Eye UnitUniversity Hospitals SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.Ophthalmology DepartmentRoyal Hampshire County HospitalWinchesterUK
  3. 3.Clinical Experimental Sciences, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  4. 4.Medical Director of IVISIONRefractive Surgery and Keratoconus Treatment CenterHaifaIsrael

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