Advertisement

Best Practice Integrated Approaches in Eye Care Service Delivery

  • Muhammad Babar Qureshi
  • Ismat Chaudhry
Chapter
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)

Abstract

Globally, though there is a reduction in overall prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI), the absolute number of those with blindness and VI is on rise. Though major causes are cataract and uncorrected refractive error (URE), chronic noncommunicable diseases like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, etc. are also on rise. Apart from this, issues related to accessibility and affordability still persist in major parts of developing countries. There are also concerns related to quality and equity in service delivery. In order to achieve goals of universal eye health coverage, strengthening primary eye care and integrating it with primary healthcare, secondary care, as well as tertiary care and the use of appropriate technology at each level of care are proposed.

This chapter describes various such models at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels as well as integrated models of eye care delivery from different parts of developing world. The importance of monitoring and evaluation as well as attributes for sustainability of these models is also discussed.

Keywords

Innovation in eye care Comprehensive eye care 

References

  1. 1.
    Bourne RRA, Flaxman SR, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Jonas JB, Vision Loss Expert Group, et al. Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5(9):e888–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization. Global data on visual impairments 2010. 2012.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Faridah D, Faız G. Innovation in hospitals: a survey of the literature. Eur J Health Econ. 2007;8:181–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khan MA, Soni M, Khan MD. Development of primary eye care as an integrated part of comprehensive health care. Commun Eye Health. 1998;11(26):24–6.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A Primary Health Care Approach. Strategies for the prevention of blindness in national programmes. Geneva: WHO; 1984. PubMed.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dandona R, Dandona L. Refractive error blindness. Bulletin World Health Organ. 2001;79(3):237–43. Accessed on 12 Jan 2009.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chang MA, Condon NG, Baker SK, Bloem MW, Savage H, Sommer A. The surgical management of cataract: barriers, best practices, and outcomes. Int Ophthalmol. 2008;28(4):247–60. Accessed on 9 Jan 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duraisamy TR, Sundaram RM. Optical services through outreach in South India: a case study from Aravind Eye Hospitals. Commun Eye Health J. 2006;19(58):29–30.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rao GN, Khanna RC, Athota SM, Rajshekar V, Rani PK. Integrated model of primary and secondary eye care for underserved rural areas: the L V Prasad Eye Institute experience. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012;60:396–400. [PMC free article] [PubMed].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aravind Eye Care System. Last accessed on 18 Dec 2013. Available from: http://www.aravind.orgtelemedicine/mobilevan.htm.
  11. 11.
    Muhit MA, Shah SP, Gilbert CE, Hartley SD, Foster A. The key informant method: a novel means of ascertaining blind children in Bangladesh. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:995–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boye J. Validating the key informant method in detecting blind children in Ghana. Community Eye Health J. 2005;18(56):131.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kalua K, Patel D, Muhit M, Courtright P. Causes of blindness among children identified through village key informants in Malawi. Can J Ophthalmol. 2008;43(4):425–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Razavi H. Childhood blindness: piloting the key informant method in Lorestan Province. Iran Commun Eye Health J. 2008;21(68):65.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Negretti GS, Ayoub T, Ahmed S, Deb R, Majumder U, Jewel J, Muhit M, Gilbert CE, Bowman RJC. Cataract surgery outcomes in Bangladeshi children. Ophthalmology. 2015;122(5):882–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muhit MA. Childhood cataract: home to hospital. Commu Eye Health. 2004;17:19–22. [PUBMED].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bashshur L. Telemedicine and health care. Telemedicine J eHealth. 2002;8:5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tatiana AT, Gustavo HMB, Guido SF, Erick M. Experiences with Arthron for live surgery transmission in Brazilian Telemedicine University network. In: Kurosu M, editor. Human-computer interaction, part II, HCII 2013, LNCS, vol. 8005. Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 197–206.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bashshur RL. On the definition and evaluation of telemedicine. Telemed J. 1995;1(1):19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nobre LF, Wangenheim A. von. Development and implementation of a statewide telemedicine/telehealth system in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In: K. Ho et al. editors. Technology enabled knowledge translation for eHealth. 2012. 6, 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Leal MC, Gama SGN, Frias PG, Szwarcwald CL. Healthy lifestyles and access to periodic health exams among Brazilian women. Cad Saúde Pública. 2005;21(1):78–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mishra SK, Kapoor L, Singh IP. Telemedicine in India: current scenario and the future. Telemed JE Health. 2009;15:568–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sharma DC. Remote Indian villages to benefit from telemedicine project. Lancet. 2000;355:1529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bhaskaranarayana A, Satyamurthy LS, Murthy LNR, Sethuraman K, Rayappa H. Bridging health divide between rural and urban areas–satellite based telemedicine networks in India, space technologies for the benefit of human society and earth, 10.1007,978-1-4020-9573-3 7 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gulube SM, Wynchank S. Telemedicine in South Africa: success or failure? J Telemed Telecare. 2001;7–2:47–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yogan P, Peter B. Provincial guidelines for the implementation of the three streams of PHC re-engineering 2011; http://www.cmt.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/2011/09/GUIDELINES-FOR-THEIMPLEMENTATION-OF-THE-THREE-STREAMS-OFPHC-4-Sept-2.pdf. Last accessed on 10 Sept 2013.
  27. 27.
    Beck S, Wojdyla D, Say L, Betran AP, Merialdi M, Requejo JH, et al. The worldwide incidence of preterm birth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88:31–8. [PUBMED].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jain R, Manikutty S. Indian institute of management, Ahmedabad; case study – Narayana Nethralaya: a precious gift to a premature child. Available from: http://www.narayananethralaya.org/pdf_files/iim_ahmedabad_case_study_n_kidro. Last accessed on 12 Jul 2012.
  29. 29.
    Fletcher AE, Donoghue M, Devavaran J, Thulasiraj RD, Scott S, Abdalla M, et al. Low uptake of eye services in rural India: a challenge for programs of blindness prevention. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:1393–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    John S, Sengupta S, Reddy SJ, Prabhu P, Kirubanandan K, Badrinath SS. The Sankara Nethralaya mobile teleophthalmology model for comprehensive eye care delivery in rural India. Telemed J E Health. 2012;18:382–7. [PubMed].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bloom DE, Craig P Mitchell M. Public and private roles in providing and financing social services: health and education. ADBI Policy Paper. 2000;17–29.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Florian M, Oliver S, Jorg S. Public–private partnership as a solution for integrating genetic services into health care of countries with low and middle incomes. J Community Genet. 2013;4:309–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yidan W. Public-private partnerships in the social sector: issues and country experiences in Asia and the Pacific. ADBI Policy 1 2002.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Coelho CF, Catherine O. Lesotho Hospital public-private partnership-a model for integrated health services delivery. Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group; 2009.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nigeria 2006 census figure (population). Available from: http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/Nigeria06censusng. Last accessed on 12 Jul 2012.
  36. 36.
    The official website of Ogun state, Nigeria. Available from: http://www.ogunstate.gov.ng. Last accessed on 12 Jul 2012.
  37. 37.
    http://www.FundaciónVisión/LatinAmerica; South America - The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/wfbExt/region_soa.html; The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency – CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/PUBLICATIONS/the-world-factbook/geos/uy.html; Latin America and the Caribbean | World Vision International. https://www.wvi.org/region/latin-america-and-caribbean; Fundación Avina. Fundación - Fundación Avina. www.avina.net/avina/en/fundacion/. Last accessed on 12 Jul 2012.
  38. 38.
    Vision 2020 Latin America 2011 indicators vision 2020 Latin America training consortium executive summary. Last accessed on 26 Mar 2012. Available from: http://www.vision2020.org/main.cfm?type=WEF&itemid=2812.
  39. 39.
    Last accessed on 12 Jul 2012. Available from: http://www.visualiza/Latin America.
  40. 40.
    Vision 2020 in Latin America: Cataract & Refractive Surgery Today. https://crstoday.com/wp-content/themes/crst/assets/downloads/CRST0507_10.pdf.
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
    Action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment 2009–2013. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pyda G, Shamanna BR, Murthy R, Khanna RC. Financing eye care in India – community-assisted and financed eye care project (CAFE). Indian J Ophthalmol. 2011;59:331. [PMC free article] [PubMed].PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Strategy on health care financing for the countries of Western Pacific and South East Asian regions 2006–2010, World Health Organization, WPR/RC56/9 Rev.1 (2005) 66:Kuper H, Polack S, Limburg H. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness. Commun Eye Health. 2006;19:68–9.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bhattacharyya O, Khor S, McGahan A, Dunne D, Abdallah SDA, Singer PA. Innovative health service delivery models in low and middle income countries – what can we learn from the private sector? Health Res Policy Sys. 2010:8–24.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    WHO-Eye Care Service Assessment Tool (ECSAT). The tool provides guidance for assessing the status and functionality of a country’s eye care service on … https:\www.who.int\blindness\publications\ecsat\en\
  47. 47.
    Tool for Assessment of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy (TADDS). In order to assess both management of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in countries and to estimate the level of cooperation and synergy between these two branches of health care, WHO has designed this assessment tool. www.icoph.org/.../Tool-for-assessment-of-diabetes-and-diabetic-retinopathy-TADDS. 1 Jan 2015.
  48. 48.
    Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Amran and Lahj governorates of Yemen April–May 2009. National program for prevention of blindness, general directorate of primary health care. Ministry of public health and population Sanaa.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    RAAB + DR survey in Taif governorate of Saudi Arabia’. A presentation at the Prevention of blindness session of the 2011 Saudi Ophthalmological society annual meeting March 2011, Riyadh.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Results of RAAB survey in Kassala state of Sudan 2009. National Program for Prevention of Blindness. Ministry of Health, Khartoum.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Polack S, Yorston D, López-Ramos A, Lepe-Orta S, Baia RM, Alves L, et al. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness and diabetic retinopathy in Chiapas. Mex Ophthalmol. 2012;119:1033–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gillani R. The eye health programme in Dera Ghazi Khan district, Pakistan. Community Eye Health. 2005;18(54):94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    National program for prevention of blindness, Pakistan/district comprehensive eye care program/national survey for blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan 2003–2004.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rao GN, Khanna RC, Athota CM. Integrated model of primary and secondary eye care for underserved rural areas , the LV Prasad eye institute experience. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012;60:396–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Babar Qureshi
    • 1
  • Ismat Chaudhry
    • 2
  1. 1.CBM InternationalCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Pakistan Institute of Ophthalmology, Al-Shifa Trust HospitalRawalpindiPakistan

Personalised recommendations