Best Practice Integrated Approaches in Eye Care Service Delivery

  • Muhammad Babar Qureshi
  • Ismat Chaudhry
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)


Globally, though there is a reduction in overall prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI), the absolute number of those with blindness and VI is on rise. Though major causes are cataract and uncorrected refractive error (URE), chronic noncommunicable diseases like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, etc. are also on rise. Apart from this, issues related to accessibility and affordability still persist in major parts of developing countries. There are also concerns related to quality and equity in service delivery. In order to achieve goals of universal eye health coverage, strengthening primary eye care and integrating it with primary healthcare, secondary care, as well as tertiary care and the use of appropriate technology at each level of care are proposed.

This chapter describes various such models at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels as well as integrated models of eye care delivery from different parts of developing world. The importance of monitoring and evaluation as well as attributes for sustainability of these models is also discussed.


Innovation in eye care Comprehensive eye care 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Babar Qureshi
    • 1
  • Ismat Chaudhry
    • 2
  1. 1.CBM InternationalCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Pakistan Institute of Ophthalmology, Al-Shifa Trust HospitalRawalpindiPakistan

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