Advertisement

Prevalence and Causes of Vision Impairment and Blindness: The Global Burden of Disease

  • Jill KeeffeEmail author
  • Serge Resnikoff
Chapter
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)

Abstract

The data required to provide the evidence to plan eye care services have been provided from an extensive meta-analysis conducted by the Global Burden of Disease Vision Loss Expert Group. The meta-analysis provides data on changes in the prevalence and causes of vision loss from 1990 to 2010. The number of people with moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI, <6/18–3/60) was 172 million in 1990 which had increased to 191 million by 2010. The increase in the number blind quite similar with 31.8 million in 1990 and 32.4 million in 2010. The global prevalence of blindness had reduced from 3.0% to 1.9% and MSVI from 14.3% to 10.4% in people aged ≥50 years; the greatest changes were seen in African and southern Asian regions, but the rates in low-income countries were 25 times greater than in high-income countries.

Both cataract and trachoma have reduced significantly as causes of blindness and MSVI over the two decades, whilst there has been no significant change in the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors. There has been a small but not significant increase in the prevalence of MSVI due to macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy but small decreases in the prevalence of blindness of these causes of vision loss. The increases have been mainly in the low-resource countries of Africa, southern Asia and Oceania.

Given the increase in both the size and the age of the global population between 1990 and 2010, the increase in the number of people with vision loss is lower than projected reflecting the lower prevalence, but avoidable causes are still the most common causes. The longer life expectancy over the last two decades has resulted in an increase in the number of years lived with disability.

Keywords

Vision impairment Blindness Prevalence Causes Changes Priorities for eye care 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The co-authors of the Vision Loss Expert Group who have contributed as authors to papers for the Global Burden of Disease Study are acknowledged: RA Bourne, HR Taylor, SR Flaxman, JB Jonas, J Leasher, K Naidoo, K Pesudovs, H Price, JL Smith, GA Stevens and RA White.

References

  1. 1.
    Bourne R, Price H, Taylor H, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group, et al. New systematic review methodology for visual impairment and blindness for the 2010 global burden of disease study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2013;20:33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bourne RA, Stevens GA, White RA, et al. Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990–2010: a systematic review on behalf of the vision loss expert group. Lancet Global Health. 2013;1:e339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bourne RRA, Jonas JB, Flaxman SR, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe: 1990–2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bourne R, Taylor HR, Flaxman S, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group, et al. Number of people blind or visually impaired by Glaucoma worldwide and in world regions 1990–2010. Lancet Global Health. 2015;11:e0162229.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    GBD 2010 Estimation strategy report for vision loss. 2012. http://www.healthdata.org/.
  6. 6.
    Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, et al. Global prevalence of myopia, high myopia, and temporal trends from 2000 to 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas. 6th edition. www.idf.org/sites/default/files/EN_6E_Atlas_Full_0.pdf.
  8. 8.
    Jonas JB, George R, Asokan R, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia: 1990–2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jonas JB, Bourne RRA, White RA, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group, et al. Visual impairment and blindness due to macula diseases globally: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;158:808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khairallah M, Kahloun R, Flaxman SR, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in North Africa and the Middle East: 1990–2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khairallah M, Kahloun R, Bourne RA, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group, et al. Number of people blind or visually impaired by cataract worldwide and in world regions 1990–2010. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:6762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Keeffe J, Taylor H, Fotis K, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kuper H, Polack S, Limburg H. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness. J Community Eye Health. 2006;19:68.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leasher JL, Lansingh V, Flaxman SR, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Latin America and the Caribbean: 1990–2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Murray CJL, Ezzati M, Flaxman AD, et al. GBD 2010: design, definitions, and metrics. Lancet. 2012;380:2063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Naidoo K, Gichuhi S, Basáñez M, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa: 1990–2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salomon JA, Vos T, Hogan DR, et al. Common values in assessing health outcomes from disease and injury: disability weights measurement study for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2129–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stevens G, White RA, Flaxman SF, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group, et al. Global prevalence of vision impairment and blindness: magnitude and temporal trends 1990–2010. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wong TY, Zheng Y, Jonas JB, on behalf of the Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia: 1990–2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    World Health Organization. Universal eye health: a global action plan 2014–2019. http://www.who.int/blindness/actionplan/en/

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.L V Prasad Eye InstituteHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.University of Melbourne, Department of OphthalmologyMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Brien Holden Vision Institute and School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations