Innovative Approaches in the Delivery of Eye Care: Refractive Errors (Including Presbyopia)

  • Kovin S. NaidooEmail author
  • Pirindhavellie Govender
  • Jyoti Naidoo
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)


The global prevalence of blindness and vision impairment due to uncorrected refractive error amplifies the need for the delivery of refractive services. Effective strategies need to be employed in order to ensure that they leave an impression on the landscape of refractive error blindness and vision impairment. The approaches must be systematic and evidence-based. Recent studies which plot the refractive error challenges impress upon practitioners across the eye health gamut the need to effect change immediately in an effective, sustainable and equitable manner.

The approaches employed to reduce the burden of blindness and vision impairment due to uncorrected refractive error can be categorised as public sector, NGO-driven, social entrepreneurship, private sector and public-private partnership. Contextual variations demand careful planning, implementation, evaluation and remediation of approaches used to achieve accessible refractive service delivery.

This chapter focuses on the different models of refractive service delivery used across the globe. It explores the strengths and weaknesses of each model and key factors for their success and challenges.


Uncorrected refractive error Models of refractive service delivery Vision impairment 


Compliance with Ethical Requirements

Compliance with ethical requirements: Kovin Naidoo, Prindha Govender and Jyothi Jaggernath declare that they have no conflict of interest.No human or animal studies were carried out by the authors for this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kovin S. Naidoo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pirindhavellie Govender
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jyoti Naidoo
    • 1
  1. 1.African Vision Research InstituteUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalDurbanSouth Africa
  2. 2.Brien Holden Vision InstituteSydneyAustralia

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