Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Hydrocephalus

  • Albert M. IsaacsEmail author
  • David D. LimbrickJr.


Hydrocephalus is a complex neurological disorder that is characterized by overaccumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the cerebral ventricles, affecting 1 in every 500–1000 individuals worldwide. From an etiological standpoint, there are several forms of hydrocephalus predefined by their respective antecedent neurologic events, including: posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), which occurs following severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in neonates; postinfectious hydrocephalus (PIH), which results from ventriculitis typically in the setting of perinatal sepsis, congenital hydrocephalus (CHC), which is associated with a range of genetic aberrations; spina-bifida-associated hydrocephalus (SB/HC), which typically occurs in patients myelomeningocele; and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), an adult form with unknown etiology.


Biomarker Cerebrospinal fluid Amyloid precursor protein Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus Congenital hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus eurosurgery 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Biology and Biomedical SciencesWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical NeuroscienceUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  3. 3.Department of Neurological SurgeryWashington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Children’s HospitalSt. LouisUSA

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