Microbial Organic Compounds Generating Taste and Odor in Water
Odor compounds are mainly due to the presence of many volatile and semivolatile components with diverse chemical and physicochemical properties. These compounds are generally present within complex matrices. Odorous compounds in the soil have been subjected to scientific analysis for the determination of odor compounds produced by microorganisms. These compounds are also known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). They are present in natural sources such as soil, air, freshwater, and marine water ecosystems, and they produce unpleasant musty odors or earthy odors.
VOCs have been isolated from Actinobacteria species, and these compounds play main roles in biological function. Common VOCs are alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, esters, ketones, sulfur compounds, and isoprenoid compounds. Geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol are naturally occurring compounds that have a very strong earthy taste and odor, and they can be simply detected by the human nose. Little is known about the fundamentals of microbial volatile odor compounds that contribute undesirable tastes or odors in water, soil, and aquaculture products. To address this knowledge gap, we have investigated the microbial community causing undesirable odors and tastes in water. The present review describes the microbial origin of odor compounds, particularly those caused by Actinobacteria. It also describes their distribution, occurrence, and chemical nature; detection of odor compounds; and biological methods used to remove undesirable odors from water.
KeywordsStreptomyces Odor compounds Geosmin Water odor and taste
D.D. thanks the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India, for financial support under the Raman Fellowship for Postdoctoral Research in the USA (F. no. 5-29/2016(IC) Dt.10.02.2016) and the Department of Science & Technology–Fund for Improvement of Science & Technology Infrastructure (DST-FIST) Programme (ref. no. SR/FIST/LS1-013/2012) dated August 13, 2012. S.L. is indebted to the Department of Science and Technology–Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (DST-INSPIRE), New Delhi, India, for financial support in the form of a Junior and Senior Research Fellowship (DST Award Letter no. IF110317/DST/INSPIRE Fellowship/2011/Dt.29.06.2011).
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