Advertisement

Locke’s Correlative Property Limits/Responsibilities to His Property Rights

  • Shelly Hiller Marguerat
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Environmental Policy and Regulation book series (PSEPR)

Abstract

This chapter is the main chapter explaining about all the legal evidence and citations to the clear and enforceable responsibilities to nature as proposed in this book and their legal related issues as supported by modern interpreters with further corroboration by other influential texts on property and Genesis. It provides the specific related issues for each of the responsibilities proposed, the possible arguments against their validity and the rebuttal of those arguments again, with corroboration from modern authors. It further proposes practical possibilities for implementation of each of those limits while concentrating on the responsibility to land and its products as natural resources and to animals’ due care including on the two responsibilities that are rarely recognized and purely based on my research. It offers a bonus subtitle on the role of Nature from ancient sources.

References

  1. Amnesty International. “Iraq: Yezedi Women and Girls Face Harrowing Sexual Violence.” Report. 23 December 2014. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2014/12/iraq-yezidi-women-and-girls-face-harrowing-sexual-violence/.
  2. Ashcraft, Richard. Revolutionary Politics and Locke’s Two Treatises of Government. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  3. Ashcraft, Richard. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government. London: Unwin Hyman, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. Beitz, Charles R. “Tacit Consent and Property Rights.” Political Theory in Social and Political Philosophy 8, no. 4 (1980): 487–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentham, Jeremy. Anarchical Fallacies, Being an Examination of the Declarations of Rights Issued During the French Revolution. The Works of Jeremy Bentham, Vol. 2 of 11. Edinburgh: William Tait, 1843. http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxtandstaticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=1921andchapter=114226andlayout=htmlandItemid=27.
  6. Bernard, Nicolas. “Les Limites de la Propriété par les droit de l’homme.” In La propriété et ses limites / Das Eigentum und seine Grenzen. Congres de l’Association Suisse de Philosophie du Droit et de Philosophie Sociale, 26 septembre 2015. Edited by B. Winiger, M. Mahlmann, S. Clément, and A. Kühler. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2017.Google Scholar
  7. Callimachi, Rukmini. “IsIs Enshrines a Theology of Rape.” The New York Times, 13 August 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/14/world/middleeast/isis-enshrines-a-theology-of-rape.html.
  8. Catto, Bonnie A. “Venus and Natura in Lucretius: ‘De Rerum Natura.’ 1.1-23 and 2.167-74.” The Classical Journal 84, no. 2 (1988): 97–104.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, Carl. “The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research.” New England Journal of Medicine 315, no. 14 (1986): 865–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, G. A. “self-Ownership, World Ownership, and Equality.” In Justice and Equality Here and Now, edited by F. S. Lucash. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  11. Cook, Thomas I. “Review of ‘John Locke and the Doctrine of Majority Rule,’ by Willmoore Kendall.” The American Political Science Review 35, no. 6 (1941): 1165–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cox, Richard H. Locke on War and Peace. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  13. Day, J. Patrick. “Locke on Property.” The Philosophical Quarterly 16, no. 64 (1966): 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Donald, J. A. “Natural Law and Natural Rights.” 2011. http://jim.com/rights.html.
  15. Drury, Shadia B. “Locke and Nozick on Property.” Political Studies 30, no. 1 (1982): 28–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dunn, John. Consent in the political theory of John Locke in Political Obligations in its Historical Context. 1980 ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  17. Dunn, John. The Political Thought of John Locke: An Historical Account of the Argument of the ‘Two Treatises of Government.’ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  18. Dunn, John. Locke. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  19. Ebenstein, William. Man and the State. New York: Rinehart and Company Inc., 1947.Google Scholar
  20. Ewins, Rory. “Beyond the Social Contract: On Mary Midgley’s (1983), Duties Concerning Islands: Of Rights and Obligations.” Encounter 60, no. 2 (2004): 36–43.Google Scholar
  21. Forde, Steven. “Natural Law, Theology, and Morality in Locke.” American Journal of Political Science 45, no. 2 (2001): 396–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forde, Steven. “What Does Locke Expect Us to Know?The Review of Politics 68, no. 2 (2006): 232–258.Google Scholar
  23. Garnsey, Peter. Thinking About Property: From Antiquity to the Age of Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 5, 220–221.Google Scholar
  24. Gauthier, David. “Why Ought One Obey God? Reflections on Hobbes and Locke.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7, no. 3 (1977): 425–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldwin, Robert. “John Locke.” In History of Political Philosophy. 3rd ed. Edited by Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  26. Grotius, Hugo. De jure belli ac pacis libri tres [The Law of War and Peace]. Translated by A. C. Campbell. London: Clarendon Press, 1625. http://www.constitution.org/gro/djbp.htm.
  27. Hartogh, Govert den. “Tully’s Locke.” Political Theory 18, No. 4 (1990): 656–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hiller Marguerat, Shelly. “John Locke’s Concept of Property and His Natural Law Limits Based on Reason.” Doctorate thesis. Geneva: Geneva University Archives online, 2014. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:36849.
  29. Hiller Marguerat, Shelly. “Property Limits as per the Main Source of Absolute Ownership.” In La propriété et ses limites / Das Eigentum und seine Grenzen. Congres de l’Association Suisse de Philosophie du Droit et de Philosophie Sociale, 26 Septembre 2015. Edited by B. Winiger, M. Mahlmann, S. Clément, and A. Kühler. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2017.Google Scholar
  30. Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. 1946 ed. Edited by M. Oakeshott. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1651–1668.Google Scholar
  31. Jackson, Etta D. Unveiling the Secrets of the Feminine Principle. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2008.Google Scholar
  32. Jennings, Daniel G. “Who is Peter Singer?” National Animal Interest Alliance (NAIA). 2009. http://www.mofed.org/Who%20is%20Peter%20Singer.htm.
  33. Kilcullen, John. “Locke on Political Obligation.” The Review of Politics 45, no. 3 (1983): 323–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Laslett, Peter. ‘Introduction’ to John Locke, Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  35. Lemos, R. M. “Locke’s Theory of Property.” In John Locke: Critical Assessments, edited by Richard Ashcraft. New York: Routledge, 1975.Google Scholar
  36. Lemos, R. M. Hobbes and Locke. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  37. Locke, Edwin A. “Animal Rights v Human Rights—Rights Can Only Be Held by Beings Who Are Capable of Reasoning and Choosing.” Intellectual Conservative Journal. 2005. http://www.intellectualconservative.com/article4376.html.
  38. Locke, John. Questions Concerning the Law of Nature. 1990 ed. Translated by R. Horwitz, J. S. Clay, and D. Clay. London: Cornell University Press, 1663.Google Scholar
  39. Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. 1975 ed. Edited by P. Nidditch. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1689. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke1/contents2.html.
  40. Locke, John. Two treatises of government. 1764 ed. London Printed MDCLXXXVIIII, 1690. http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtreat.txt, https://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/politics/locke/ch00.htm.
  41. Locke, John. First Treatise. Edited by P. Laslett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963 (1690).Google Scholar
  42. Locke, John. Some Thoughts Concerning Education. 2001 ed. of Reprint 1909–1914. New York: P.F. Collier and Son, 1693. http://www.bartleby.com/37/1/3.html.
  43. Locke, John. Locke’s Private Correspondence to Damaris Masham (Resistance, Religion and Responsibility, Collection of Letters and Private Notes). 1994 ed. Edited by Marshall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1704.Google Scholar
  44. Macpherson, Crawford Brough. “Locke on Capitalist Appropriation.” The Western Political Quarterly 4, no. 4 (1951): 550–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Macpherson, Crawford Brough. The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  46. Mill, J. S. “Remarks on Bentham’s Philosophy. Essays on Ethics, Religion and Society.” In The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill. Vol. 10. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1833.Google Scholar
  47. Moulds, Henry. “Private Property in John Locke’s State of Nature.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 23, no. 2 (1964): 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Murphy, Cornelius F. “The Grotian Vision of World Order.” The American Journal of International Law 76, no. 3 (1982): 477–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 1974.Google Scholar
  50. Olivecrona, Karl. “Appropriation in the State of Nature: Locke on the Origin of Property.” Journal of the History of Ideas 35, no. 2 (1974): 211–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. OzHarvest Market. “SBS News | Ugly Food a Solution to Food Wastage Feat OzHarvest I The Feed.” 2 September 2015. See video on this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MB8j9K3-rBY.
  52. OzHarvest Market. “Stories Well Told.” 14 April 2015. See video on website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nd4sEDNi46Qandfeature=share.
  53. OzHarvest Market. 2017. See video on website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ShpBB63ZiqY.
  54. Pangle, Thomas L. The Spirit of Modern Republicanism: The Moral Vision of the American Founders and the Philosophy of John Locke. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  55. Pauliat, Hélène. “L’objectif constitutionnel de droit à un logement décent: Vers le constat de décès du droit de propriété?” Recueil Dalloz Sirey 37 (1995): 283–287.Google Scholar
  56. Pierson, Christopher. Just Property, A History in the Latin West Volume One: Wealth, Virtue, and the Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  57. Plamenatz, John Petrov. Man and Society. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.Google Scholar
  58. Pollock, Sir Frederic. “Locke’s Theory of the State.” In Essays in the Law. London: Macmillan and Co., 1922.Google Scholar
  59. Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph. What Is Property?: An Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government. Translated by B. R. Tucker. London: William Reeves Bookseller Ltd., 1969.Google Scholar
  60. Pufendorf, Samuel. De iure naturae et gentium libri octo. 1934 ed. Translated by C. H. Oldfather and W. A. Oldfather. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1672. https://archive.org/details/samuelispufendor1672pufe.
  61. Pufendorf, Samuel. The Law of Nature and of Nations. 5th ed. Edited by J. Barbeyrac. Translated by B. Kennett. London, 1749. Google Scholar
  62. Rapaczynski, Andrzej. Nature and Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  63. Reeve, Andrew. Property. Houndmills: Macmillan and Co, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rousseau, Jean Jacques. What Is the Origin of Inequality Among Men, and It Is Authorized by Natural Law. Translated by G. D. H. Cole. 1754. http://www.constitution.org/jjr/ineq_02.htm.
  65. Ryan, Alan. Locke and the Dictatorship of the Bourgeoisie. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  66. Ryan, Alan. Property and Political Theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984.Google Scholar
  67. Sax, Boria. Animals in the Third Reich: Pets, Scapegoats, and the Holocaust. New York: Continuum, 2000.Google Scholar
  68. Schlatter, Richard. Private Property: The History of an Idea. London: Allen and Unwin, 1951.Google Scholar
  69. Scruton, Roger. “Animal Rights.” City Journal, Manhattan Institute. 2000. http://www.city-journal.org/html/10_3_urbanities-animal.html.
  70. Seliger, Martin. The Liberal Politics of John Locke. London: Allen and Unwin, 1968.Google Scholar
  71. Shrader-Frechette, Kristin. “Locke and Limits on Land Ownership.” Journal of the History of Ideas 54, no. 2 (1993): 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Simmons, A. John. “Locke’s State of Nature.” Political Theory 17, no. 3 (1989): 449–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Simmons, A. John. The Lockean Theory of Rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  74. Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics. 2nd ed. Centre for Human Bioethics Monash University, 1993, 122–123. http://www.stafforini.com/docs/Singer%20-%20Practical%20ethics.pdf.
  75. Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation. 4th ed. New York: Random House, 2002.Google Scholar
  76. Singer, Peter. “Taking Humanism Beyond Speciesism.” Free Inquiry 24, no. 6 (2004): 19–21.Google Scholar
  77. Snyder, Darren C. “Locke on Natural Law and Property Rights.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 16, no. 3 (1986): 723–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Squadrito, Kathleen. “Locke’s View of Dominion.” Environmental Ethics 1, no. 3 (1979): 255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sreenivasan, Gopal. The Limits of Lockean Rights in Property. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  80. Steiner, Hillel. “The Natural Right to the Means of Production.” The Philosophical Quarterly 27, no. 106 (1977): 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Steiner, Hillel. “Justice and Entitlement.” In Reading Nozick, edited by Jeffrey Paul. Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield, 1981.Google Scholar
  82. Strauss, Leo. Natural Right and History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953.Google Scholar
  83. Tarcov, Nathan. Locke’s Education for Liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  84. The Center for Consumer Freedom Team. “Animals Versus Human Animals.” http://www.consumerfreedom.com/news_detail.cfm/h/4262-animals-vs-human-animals. 21 September 2010.
  85. The Natural Step Israel. [Hackton Makeover Not Trash! Israel’s First Hothouse to Reduce Food Waste].” 7 June 2017. See video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=liTNtnxbfukandt=8s.
  86. Trigeaud, Jean Marc. La possession des biens immobiliers. Nature et fondement. Paris: Economica, 1981.Google Scholar
  87. Tully, James. A Discourse on Property: John Locke and His Adversaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  88. Tully, James. “Property, Self-Government and Consent.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 28, no. 1 (1995): 105–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vaughn, Karen Ivarsen. “John Locke and the Labor Theory of Value.” Journal of Libertarian Studies 2, no. 3 (1978): 11–26.Google Scholar
  90. Vaughn, Karen Ivarsen. John Locke: Economist and Social Scientists. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  91. Von Leyden, Wolfgang. “John Locke and Natural Law.” Philosophy 31, no. 116 (1956): 23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Waldron, Jeremy. “Enough and as Good Left for Others.” The Philosophical Quarterly 29, no. 117 (1979): 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Waldron, Jeremy. The Right to Private Property. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Waldron, Jeremy. “Nozick and Locke, Filling the Space of Rights.” Social Philosophy and Policy 22, no. 1 (2005): 81–110. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1andfid=275189andjid=SOYandvolumeId=22andissueId=01andaid=275187.
  95. Wood, Neal. John Locke and Agrarian Capitalism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  96. Yolton, John W. Locke: An Introduction. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shelly Hiller Marguerat
    • 1
  1. 1.Forel (Lavaux)Switzerland

Personalised recommendations