• Shelly Hiller Marguerat
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Environmental Policy and Regulation book series (PSEPR)


The chapter gives an introduction to solutions proposed in this book related to two important problems that property law faces today; the degradation of land, natural resources and animal abuse, all covered under the definition of property and in the same time, the increasing deprivation of private property rights from property owners for unjustified reasons. It shows the need for the extension of the definition of property as recognized by environmentalist and jurists, the historical background to the absolute definition of property with the increasing need for limiting this absolute definition in different fields under international and national law.


  1. Ashcraft, Richard. Revolutionary Politics and Locke’s Two Treatises of Government. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  2. Barbour, Ian. Technology, Environment, and Hum Values. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1980.Google Scholar
  3. Bernard, Nicolas. ‘Les Limites de la Propriété par les droit de l’homme.’ In La propriété et ses limites/Das Eigentum und seine Grenzen. Congres de l’Association Suisse de Philosophie du Droit et de Philosophie Sociale, 26 septembre 2015, edited by B. Winiger, M. Mahlmann, S. Clément, and A. Kühler. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2017.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, Thomas. The Dream of the Earth. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988.Google Scholar
  5. Berry, Thomas. The Great Work: Our Way into the Future. New York: Bell Tower, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. Blackstone, William. Commentaries on the Laws of England in Four Books. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1766.Google Scholar
  7. Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring. Fortieth Anniversary ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1962.Google Scholar
  8. Chan, Arthur H. ‘The Changing View of Property Rights in Natural Resources Management.’ American Journal of Economics and Sociology 48, no. 2 (1989): 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cobb, Charles E. ‘The Great Lakes’ Troubled Waters.’ National Geographic 172, no. 1 (1987): 4–25.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, Mark A. ‘Environmental Crime and Punishment: Legal/Economic Theory and Empirical Evidence on Enforcement of Federal Environmental Statutes.’ Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 82, no. 4 (1992): 1054–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cox, Richard H. Locke on War and Peace. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  12. Cullinan, Cormac. Wild Law, a Manifesto for Earth Justice. Dartington: Green Books Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  13. Garnsey, Peter. Thinking About Property: From Antiquity to the Age of Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 5, 220–221.Google Scholar
  14. Goldwin, Robert. ‘John Locke.’ In History of Political Philosophy. 3rd ed. Edited by Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  15. Hiller Marguerat, Shelly. ‘John Locke’s Concept of Property and His Natural Law Limits Based on Reason.’ Doctorate thesis, Geneva University Archives online, Geneva, 2014.
  16. Hiller Marguerat, Shelly. ‘Property Limits as per the Main Source of Absolute Ownership.’ In La propriété et ses limites / Das Eigentum und seine Grenzen. Congres de l’Association Suisse de Philosophie du Droit et de Philosophie Sociale, 26 Septembre 2015. Edited by B. Winiger, M. Mahlmann, S. Clément, and A. Kühler. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2017.Google Scholar
  17. Katz, Claudio J. ‘Thomas Jefferson’s Liberal Anticapitalism.’ American Journal of Political Science 47, no. 1 (2003): 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lamprecht, Sterling Power. Moral and Political Philosophy of John Locke. New York: Columbia University Press, 1918.Google Scholar
  19. Larkin, Paschal. Property in the 18th Century with Special Reference to England and John Locke. Cork: Cork University Press, 1930.Google Scholar
  20. Laslett, Peter. ‘Introduction’ to John Locke, Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  21. Locke II, John. Two Treatises of Government. 1764 ed. London Printed MDCLXXXVIIII, 1690. and
  22. Macpherson, Crawford Brough. ‘Locke on Capitalist Appropriation.’ The Western Political Quarterly 4, no. 4 (1951): 550–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mansfield, Harvey Clavlin. Taming the Prince. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  24. Mitchell, Neil J. ‘John Locke and the Rise of Capitalism.’ History of Political Economy 18, no. 2 (1986): 291–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pangle, Thomas L. The Spirit of Modern Republicanism: The Moral Vision of the American Founders and the Philosophy of John Locke. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  26. Peter Garnsey. ‘Property and its Limits: Historical Analysis’, among other experts professors on property law in the book of “La propriété et ses limites/Das Eigentum und seine Grenzen”; Congres de l’Association Suisse de Philosophie du Droit et de Philosophie Sociale, 26 septembre 2015. ed. by B. Winiger (the supervisor of my thesis (2014) on property and property limits who organized this international conference)/M. Mahlmann/S. Clément/A. Kühler (ARSP-B, Bd. 154), Franz Steiner Verlag, 2017.Google Scholar
  27. Pierson, Christopher. Just Property, A History in the Latin West Volume One: Wealth, Virtue, and the Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  28. Powell, Jim. ‘John Locke: Natural Rights to Life, Liberty, and Property.’ The Freeman 46, no. 8 (1996): 45–52.
  29. Schlatter, Richard. Private Property: The History of an Idea. London: Allen and Unwin, 1951.Google Scholar
  30. Shepard, Paul. Nature and Madness. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1982.Google Scholar
  31. Shirkova-Tuuli, Irina. ‘On the Concept of Ecological Optimism.’ Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy. Boston: Boston University Press, 1998.
  32. Stephens, Piers H. G. Picking at the Locke of Economic Reductionism. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stone, Christopher. Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  34. Strauss, Leo. Natural Right and History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953.Google Scholar
  35. Tarcov, Nathan. Locke’s Education for Liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  36. Zuckert, Michael P. ‘The Recent Literature on Locke’s Political Philosophy.’ Political Science Reviewer 2, no. 5 (1975): 271–304.Google Scholar

Legal References

  1. Brazilian Constitution. 5 October 1988.Google Scholar
  2. Charter of the Greek Republic. 19 June 1975.Google Scholar
  3. Constitution of Bavaria. 2 December 1946.Google Scholar
  4. Constitution of Saarland. 15 December 1947.Google Scholar
  5. Czech and Slovak Charter of Fundamental Human Rights. 16 December 1992.Google Scholar
  6. Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. 16 June 1972. Stockholm: Reprinted in 11 I.L.M. 1416 (1972).Google Scholar
  7. German Basic Law. 23 May 1949.Google Scholar
  8. Irish Constitution. 1 July 1937.Google Scholar
  9. Italian Constitution. 27 December 1947.Google Scholar
  10. Romanian Constitution. 21 November 1991.Google Scholar
  11. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. 14 June 1992. Rio de Janeiro: Reprinted in 31 I.L.M. 876 (1992).Google Scholar
  12. Spanish Constitution. 27 December 1978.Google Scholar
  13. Weimar Constitution. 11 August 1919.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shelly Hiller Marguerat
    • 1
  1. 1.Forel (Lavaux)Switzerland

Personalised recommendations