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Treatment of Paroxysmal Nonkinesigenic Dyskinesia

  • Zain Guduru
  • Kapil D. SethiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)

Abstract

Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is a rare movement disorder characterized by intermittent attacks of hyperkinetic involuntary movements without loss of consciousness. It may be classified into primary (genetic or sporadic) or secondary. The attacks usually occur at rest and may be precipitated by alcohol, coffee, cola, tobacco, fatigue, and emotion. Eighty percent of the patients are of autosomal dominant inheritance with a MR-1 gene mutation on chromosome 2q. Management is the avoidance of precipitating factors. Usually, medical treatment is less rewarding. Medications which have shown benefit in some include carbamazepine, benztropine, or clonazepam. Deep Brain Stimulation (ViM, or GPi target) might be considered in severe and medically refractory cases.

Keywords

Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia PNKD Dystonia Sleep benefit Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene Mitochondrial dysfunction 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders SectionUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Augusta UniversityAugustaUSA

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