Advertisement

Methods for Collecting, Rearing and Preserving Dragonflies

  • Kenneth J. Tennessen
Chapter

Abstract

Collecting and preserving methods for both nymphs and adults of Odonata are described. Procedures for rearing and feeding nymphs are outlined; rearing nymphs is an essential tool in learning about their growth and development. Suggestions for equipment and other materials, and also safety concerns, necessary in field studies of nymphs and adults are provided. Field guides to the adults of North American dragonflies are listed.

References

  1. Askew RR (1988) The dragonflies of Europe. Harley Books, Colchester, UK. 291 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Boose AE (2014) Epiaeschna heros (Swamp Darner) and survivorship during dry periods in vernal pools. Argia 26(1):35–37Google Scholar
  3. Cannings RA (1982) Notes on the biology of Aeshna sitchensis Hagen (Anisoptera: Aeshnidae). Odonatologica 11:219–223Google Scholar
  4. Carle FL (1978) Freeze drying techniques for preserving dragonfly specimens. Odonatologica 7(1):11–13Google Scholar
  5. Cebulski BC (2009) Collecting odonates under the ice. Argia 21(3):8–9Google Scholar
  6. Cook C (1994) A novel technique for collecting aquatic invertebrates (with particular application to Odonata nymphs). Argia 5(4):6–8Google Scholar
  7. Davies DAL (1954) On the preservation of insects by drying in vacuo at low temperature. Entomologist 87:34Google Scholar
  8. Dragonfly Society of the Americas (1996) Statement of committee on collecting policy. Argia 8(2):36–37Google Scholar
  9. DuBois RD (2015) Detection probabilities and sampling rates for Anisoptera exuviae along river banks: influences of bank vegetation type, prior precipitation, and exuviae size. Int J Odonatol 18:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DuBois R, Tennessen K (2016) The rewards of collecting and rearing nymphs. Argia 28(2):5–8Google Scholar
  11. Dunkle SW (1980) Second larval instars of Florida Anisoptera (Odonata). Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  12. Foster SE, Soluk DA (1994) Evaluating exuvia collection as a management tool for the federally endangered Hine’s emerald dragonfly, Somatochlora hineana Williamson (Odonata: Corduliidae). Biol Conserv 118:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garrison RW (1993) The role of amateur and professional insect collecting. Argia 5(1):5–9Google Scholar
  14. Hammond CO (1977) The dragonflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Curwen Books, London. 115 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Hutchinson R, Morrissette R (1977) Découverte de larves d’odonates vivantes dans une mare asséchée. Cordulia 3:145–146Google Scholar
  16. Hutchinson R, Ménard B (2015) The Ménard aquatic net for collecting dragonfly larvae. Argia 27(3):36–37Google Scholar
  17. Lubertazzi MAA, Ginsberg HS (2009) Persistance of dragonfly exuviae on vegetation and rock substrates. Northeastern Naturalis 16(1):141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McCafferty WP (1981) Aquatic entomology. Science Books International, Boston. 448 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Merritt RW, Cummins KW, Berg MB (2008) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America, 4th edn. Dubuque, Kendall Hunt. 1158 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Orr RL (1994) Proposed DSA collecting policy (guidelines). Argia 6(3):6–8Google Scholar
  21. Paulson DR (2003) Comments on the Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839) group, with the elevation of E. fusca (Rambur, 1842), E. minuscula (Rambur, 1842), and E. basifusca (Calvert, 1895) to full species (Anisoptera: Libellulidae). Bull Amer Odonatol 6(4):101–110Google Scholar
  22. Raebel EM, Mercls T, Riordan P, McDonald DW, Thompson DJ (2010) The dragonfly delusion: why it is essential to sample exuviae to avoid biased surveys. J Insect Conserv 14:523–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rowe RJ (1991) Larval development and emergence in Hemianax papuensis (Burmeister) (Odonata: Aeshnidae). J Aust Entomol Soc 30:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rowe R (2002) Rearing dragonflies. Austrolestes 3:2–3Google Scholar
  25. Tennessen KJ (1979) Distance traveled by transforming nymphs of Tetragoneuria at Marion County Lake, Alabama, United States (Anisoptera: Corduliidae). Notul Odonatolog 1(4):63–65Google Scholar
  26. Tennessen KJ (1994a) Feeding teneral adult dragonflies – and more on rearing. Argia 6(1/2):19–20Google Scholar
  27. Tennessen KJ (1994b) A collecting tip for gomphids. Argia 6(3):12Google Scholar
  28. Tennessen KJ (2016) What to feed tiny dragonfly nymphs? Argia 28(3):19–22Google Scholar
  29. Usinger RL (1963) Aquatic insects of California. University of California Press, Berkeley. 508 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. White HB, Morse WJ (1973) Odonata (dragonflies) of New Hampshire: an annotated list, Agricultural and Experimental Station Resources Report 30. University of New Hampshire, Durham. 46 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Willey RL, Eiler HO (1972) Drought resistance in subalpine nymphs of Somatochlora semicircularis Selys (Odonata: Corduliidae). Am Mid Nat 87:215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Young AM (1966) A new method for preserving color patterns and color brilliance in dragonflies. Turtox News 44(2):58–59Google Scholar

ADDENDUM. References for Identifying Adult Anisoptera of North America (including regional field guides)

  1. Abbott JC (2015) Dragonflies of Texas: a field guide, Texas Natural History Guides. University of Texas, Austin. 448 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailowitz R, Danforth D, Upson S (2015) A field guide to the Damselflies & Dragonflies of Arizona and Sonora. Nova Granada Publications, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  3. Beaton G (2007) Dragonflies and damselflies of Georgia and the Southeast. The University of Georgia Press, Athens. 355 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Behrstock RA (2008) Dragonflies & Damselflies of the southwest. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson. 80 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Cannings RA, Stuart KM (1977) The dragonflies of British Columbia, British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 35. British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria. 254 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Carpenter V (1991) Dragonflies and damselflies of Cape Cod. Cape Cod Museum of Natural History, Brewster. 79 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Curry JR (2001) Dragonflies of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Sciences, Indianapolis. 303 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. DuBois R (2010) Dragonflies & damselflies of the Rocky Mountains. Kollath+Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, MN. 301 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunkle SW (1989) Dragonflies of the Florida Peninsula, Bermuda and the Bahamas. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville. 155 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Dunkle SW (2000) Dragonflies through binoculars: a field guide to dragonflies of North America. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 266 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Garrison M (2011) Damselflies of Chicagoland: a photo field guide, version 2. Marla Garrison. 135 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Glotzhober RC, McShaffrey D (eds) (2002) The dragonflies and damselflies of Ohio. Ohio Biolog Surv Bull NS 14(2):1–364Google Scholar
  13. Hudson J, Armstrong RH (2005) Dragonflies of Alaska. John Hudson and Robert H, Armstrong. 48 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Huggins DG, Brigham WU (1982) Odonata. In: Brigham AR, Brigham WU, Gnilka A (eds) Aquatic insects and oligochaetes of North and South Carolina. Midwest Aquatic Enterprises, Mahomet, IL, pp 4.1–4.100Google Scholar
  15. Hutchings G, Halstead D (2011) Dragonflies & damselflies in the hand: an identification guide to Boreal forest odonates in Saskatchewan and adjacent regions. Nature Saskatchewan, Regina. Special Publication No. 29. 159 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Kerst C, Gordon K (2011) Dragonflies and damselflies of Oregon: a field guide. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 304 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Legler K, Legler D, Westover D (2013) Dragonflies of Wisconsin, 5.1 edn. Karl Legler, Sauk CityGoogle Scholar
  18. Manolis T (2003) Dragonflies and damselflies of California. University of California Press, Berkeley. 201 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Mead K (2017) Dragonflies of the North Woods, 3rd edn. Kollath-Stensaas Publ, Duluth. 276 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Needham JG, Westfall MJ Jr (1955) A manual of the dragonflies of North America (Anisoptera). University of California Press, Berkeley. 615 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Needham JG, Westfall MJ Jr, May ML (2000) Dragonflies of North America, Rev edn. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, FL. 939 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Needham JG, Westfall MJ Jr, May ML (2014) Dragonflies of North America, 3rd edn. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, FL. 657 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Paulson D (2003) Comments on the Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839) group, with the elevation of E. fusca (Rambur, 1842), E. minuscula (Rambur, 1842), and E. basifusca (Calvert, 1895) to full species (Anisoptera: Libellulidae). Bull Am Odonatol 6(4):101–110Google Scholar
  24. Paulson D (2009) Dragonflies and damselflies of the West. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 535 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Paulson D (2011) Dragonflies and damselflies of the East. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 538 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Walker EM (1958) The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, vol 2. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 318 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Walker EM, Corbet PS (1975) The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, vol 3. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 307 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth J. Tennessen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Florida State Collection of ArthropodsGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.WautomaUSA

Personalised recommendations