Recreational Walking

  • David Huddart


The various categories of recreational walking are described in this chapter, including devotional trails and formal and informal trails, and the numbers involved in the activity are estimated. Trampling impacts on vegetation, soil, and water quality, and the resultant footpath erosion are discussed and evaluated, including the impacts of hiking poles. The ways to assess the trampling patterns caused are summarised, including experimental trampling. The effects of recreational walking, including dog walking, on wildlife, especially on birds, through flight and behaviour changes, are evaluated. Techniques for managing the footpath surface are described such as creating more resistant surfaces, such as using geotextiles, surface nettings, chemical binders and surface glues, mulch mats, aggregate paths, and boardwalks. Vegetation reinstatement using transplanting techniques and seeding is evaluated, and an example of management experiments are described and evaluated from the Three Peaks project (Yorkshire Dales, UK).


Trampling impacts Footpath erosion Experimental trampling Water quality Effects on wildlife Resistant footpath surfaces Vegetation reinstatement Three Peaks project 


  1. Agate, E. (1983). Footpaths—A Practical Handbook. British Trust for Conservation Volunteers.Google Scholar
  2. Alwis, N. S., Peers, P., & Dayawansa, N. R. (2016). Response of tropical avifauna to visitor-recreational disturbances: A case study from the Sinharaja World Heritage Forest, Sri Lanka. Avian Research 7.
  3. Amar, A., Henson, C. M., Thewlis, R. M., Smith, K. W., Fuller, R. J., Lindsell, J. A., et al. (2006). What’s Happening to Our Woodland Birds? Long-term Changes in the Populations of Woodland Birds. BTO Research Report 169, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Research Report 19, BTO, Thetford and RSPB, Sandy, Bedfordshire.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, R., Linnell, J. D. C., & Langvatn, R. (1996). Short-term behavioural and physiological response of moose Alces alces to military disturbance in Norway. Biological Conservation, 77, 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, D. W. (1988). Dose-response relationship between human disturbance and brown pelican breeding success. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 16, 339–345.Google Scholar
  6. Backshall, J., Manley, J., & Rebane, M. (2001). The Upland Management Handbook. Peterborough: English Nature.Google Scholar
  7. Baines, D., & Richardson, M. (2007). An experimental assessment of the potential effects of human disturbance on black grouse Tetrao tetrix in the north Pennines, England. Ibis, 149, 56–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banks, P. B., & Bryant, J. V. (2007). Four-legged friend or foe? Dog walking displaces native birds from natural areas. Biological Letters, 3, 611–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barlow, J., & Thomas, M. (1998). Mending Our Ways—The Quality Approach to Managing Upland Paths. British Upland Path Trust.Google Scholar
  10. Bayfield, N. G. (1971). Thin-wire tramplometers—A simple method for detecting variations in walker pressure across paths. Journal of Applied Ecology, 8, 533–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bayfield, N. G. (1985). The effect of extended use on mountain footpaths in Britain. In N. G. Bayfield & G. C. Barrow (Eds.), The Ecological Impacts of Outdoor Recreation in Mountain Areas in Europe and North America (pp. 100–111). Recreation Ecology Research Group Report 9, London: RERG, Wye.Google Scholar
  12. Bayfield, N. G. (1987). Approaches to reinstatement of damaged footpaths in the three peaks area of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. In M. Bell & R. G. H. Bunce (Eds.), Agriculture and Conservation in the Hills and Uplands (pp. 78–87). Natural Environment Research Council and Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, ITE Symposium 23.Google Scholar
  13. Bayfield, N. G., et al. (1990). Vegetation Reinforcement Trials, 1986–1989. Banchory, Scotland: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology.Google Scholar
  14. Bayfield, N. G., et al. (1991a). Restoring Native Plant Cover by Seeding and Live Mulching: Trials in the Three Peaks Area on Peat and Mineral Soils, 1986–1989. Banchory, Scotland: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology.Google Scholar
  15. Bayfield, N. G. et al. (1991b). Monitoring of Seeding Trials in the Three Peaks, 1991. ITE Report No. 12, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Banchory, Scotland.Google Scholar
  16. Bayfield, N. G., & Aitken, R. (1992). Managing the Impacts of Recreation on Vegetation and Soils: A Review of Techniques. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Banchory Research Station, Scotland, 100pp.Google Scholar
  17. Bayfield, N. G., & McGowan, G. M. (1986). Footpath Survey 1986. ITE Report No. 1, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Banchory, Scotland.Google Scholar
  18. Bayfield, N., & McGowan, G. M. (1990). Re-establishment of Mountain Vegetation: Laboratory Screening Trials, 1988–9. Banchory, Scotland: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology.Google Scholar
  19. Bayfield, N. G., & Miller, G. R. (1988). 1987 Progress Report: Revegetation Trials. ITE Report No. 4, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Banchory, Scotland.Google Scholar
  20. Bayfield, N. G., Watson, A., & Miller, G. R. (1988). Assessing and managing the effects of recreational use on British hills. In M. B. Usher & D. B. A. Thompson (Eds.), Ecological Change in the Uplands. Special Publication Number 7, British Ecological Society, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  21. Beedie, P., & Hudson, S. (2003). Emergence of mountain-based adventure tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30, 625–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bell, S. L., Tyrvӓchen, L., Sievӓnen, T., Pröbstl, U., & Simpson, M. (2007). Outdoor recreation and nature tourism: A European perspective. Landscape Research Living Reviews Retrieved from
  23. Bergmann, R. (1995). Soil Stabilizer for Use on Universally Accessible Trails. USDA Forest Service Publication 9523-1804-MTDC-P, Technology and Development Program, Beltsville, MD, 11pp.Google Scholar
  24. Birchard, W., & Proudman, R. D. (2000). Appalachian Trail Design, Construction and Maintenance (2nd ed.). Harpers Ferry, WV: Appalachian Trail Conference.Google Scholar
  25. Bolduc, F., & Guillemette, M. (2003). Human disturbance and nesting access of common eiders, interaction between visitors and gulls. Biological Conservation, 110, 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Borcard, D., & Matthey, W. (1995). Effect of a controlled trampling of sphagnum mosses on their Oribatid mite assemblages. Pedobiologia, 39, 219.Google Scholar
  27. Bowker, J. M., Askew, A. E., Cordell, H. K., Betz, C. J., Zarnock, S. J., & Seymour, L. (2012). Outdoor Recreation Participation in the United States—Projections to 2060: A Technical Document Supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment. General Technical Report SRS-160, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, 34pp.Google Scholar
  28. Bratton, S. P. (1985). Effect of disturbance by visitors on two woodland orchid species in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Biological Conservation, 31, 211–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bratton, S. P., Hickler, M. G., & Graves, J. H. (1979). Trail erosion patterns in great Smoky Mountain National Park. Environmental Management, 3, 431–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Buchanan, K. (1976). Some Effects of Trampling on the Flora and Invertebrate Fauna of Sand Dunes. Discussion Papers in Conservation No. 13, University College, London, 42pp.Google Scholar
  31. Buckley, R. (2004). Impacts of ecotourism on birds. In R. Buckley (Ed.), Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism (pp. 187–210). Wallingford and Cambridge, MA: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Burger, J., Gochfield, M., & Niles, T. H. B. (1995). Ecotourism and birds in coastal New Jersey: Contrasting responses of birds, tourists and managers. Environmental Conservation, 22, 56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Burger, J., Jeitnert, C., Clark, K., & Niles, L. J. (2004). The effect of human activities on migrant shorebirds: Successful adaptive management. Environmental Conservation, 31, 283–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cardoni, D. A., Favers, M., & Isacch, J. P. (2008). Recreational activities affecting the habitat use by birds in Pampa’s wetlands, Argentina: Implications for waterbird conservation. Biological Conservation, 141, 797–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Carney, K. M., & Sydeman, W. J. (1999). A review of human disturbance effects on nesting colonial waterbirds. Waterbirds, 22, 68–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Clark, A., & Leung, Y.-F. (2007). Research on Off-Trail Walking Behaviour, Impacts and Education Efficacy (pp. 147–168). Department of Park, Recreation and Tourism, North Carolina State University.Google Scholar
  37. Clow, D. W., Forrester, H., Miller, B., Ropp, H., Sickman, J. O., Ryu, H., et al. (2013). Effects of stock use and backpackers on water quality in wilderness in Sequoia and kings canyon National Parks, USA. Environmental Management, 52, 1400–1414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cole, D. N. (1991). Changes on Trails in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Montana, 1978–1989. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper INT-450, Ogden, UT, 5pp.Google Scholar
  39. Cole, D. N. (1995a). Experimental trampling of vegetation. I relationship between trampling intensity and vegetation response. Journal of Applied Ecology, 32, 203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cole, D. N. (1995b). Recreational Trampling Experiments: Effects of Trampler Weight and Shoe Type. USDA Forest Service Research Note INT-RN-425, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT, 4pp.Google Scholar
  41. Cole, D. N. (2004). Impacts of hiking and camping on soils and vegetation: A review. In R. Buckley (Ed.), Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism (pp. 41–60). Ecotourism Series No. 2. Wallingford and Cambridge, MA: CABI.Google Scholar
  42. Cole, D. N., & Bayfield, N. G. (1993). Recreational trampling of vegetation: Standard experimental procedures. Biological Conservation, 63, 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cole, D. N., & Monz, C. A. (2002). Trampling Disturbance of High-Elevation Vegetation, Wind River Mountains, Wyoming, USA (pp. 365–370). Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 34.Google Scholar
  44. Cole, D. N., Petersen, M. E., & Lucas, R. C. (1987). Managing Wilderness Recreation Use: Common Problems and Potential Solutions. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-GTR-230, Inter Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT, 30pp.Google Scholar
  45. Cordell, H. K. (2012). Outdoor Recreation Trends and Futures: A Technical Document Supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment. General Technical Report SRS-150. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 167pp.Google Scholar
  46. Dahlgren, R. B., & Korschgen, C. E. (1992). Human Disturbances of Waterfowl: An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, DC: US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  47. Davies, P., & Loxham, J. (1996). Repairing Upland Path Erosion. Lake District National Park Authority, The National Trust and English Nature.Google Scholar
  48. Davis, A. K. (2007). Walking trails in a nature preserve alter terrestrial salamander distributions. Natural Areas Journal, 27, 385–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. de Boer, H. Y., Van Breukelen, L., & Hootsmans, M. J. M. (2004). Flight distance in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama as related to hunting and other factors. Wildlife Biology, 10, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Derlet, W., & Carlson, J. R. (2006). Coliform bacteria in Sierra Nevada wilderness lakes and streams: What is the impact of backpackers, pack animals and cattle? Wilderness Environmental Medicine, 17, 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Edwards, T. (2007). National Trails: Results of the National Trail User Survey 2007. Natural England and the Countryside Council for Wales.Google Scholar
  52. Fernández-Juricic, E. (2000). Local and regional effects of pedestrians on forest birds in a fragmented landscape. Condor, 102, 247–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fernández-Juricic, E., Jiminiz, M. D., & Lucas, E. (2001a). Alert distance as an alternative measure of bird tolerance to human disturbance: Implications for park design. Environmental Conservation, 28, 263–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fernández-Juricic, E., Jiminiz, M. D., & Lucas, E. (2001b). Bird tolerance to human disturbance in urban parks of Madrid (Spain): Management implication. In J. M. Marziuff, R. Bownan, & R. Donnelly (Eds.), Avian Ecology and Conservation in an Urbanizing World (pp. 259–273). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fernández-Juricic, E., & Tellerίa, J. L. (2000). Effects of human disturbance on spatial and temporal feeding patterns of blackbird Turdus merula in urban parks in Madrid, Spain. Bird Study, 47, 13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Finney, S. K., Pearce-Higgins, J. W., & Yalden, D. W. (2005). The effect of recreational disturbance on an upland breeding bird, the golden plover Pluvialis apricaria. Biological Conservation, 121, 53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fox, A. D., & Madsen, J. (1997). Behavioural and distributional effects of hunting disturbance on waterbirds in Europe: Implications for refuge design. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gallet, S., Lemauviel, S., & Roz’e, F. (2004). Responses of three heathland shrubs to single or repeated experimental trampling. Environmental Management, 33, 821–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gallet, S., & Roz’e, F. (2001). Resistance of Atlantic heathlands to trampling in Brittany (France): Influence of vegetation type, season and weather conditions. Biological Conservation, 97, 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gallet, S., & Roz’e, F. (2002). Long-term effects of trampling on Atlantic heathland in Brittany (France): Resilience and tolerance in relation to season and meteorological conditions. Biological Conservation, 103, 267–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gill, J. A. (2007). Approaches to measuring the effects of human disturbance on birds. Ibis, 149, 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gill, J. A., Norris, K., & Sutherland, W. J. (2001). The effects of disturbance on habitat use by black-tailed godwits. Limosa limosa. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 846–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gill, J. A., Sutherland, W. J., & Watkinson, A. R. (1996). A method to quantify the effects of human disturbance on animal populations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 786–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goodrich, J. M., & Berger, J. (1994). Winter recreation and hibernating black bears Ursus americanus. Biological Conservation, 67, 105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Grieve, I. C. (2001). Human impacts on soil properties and their implications for the sensitivity of soil systems in Scotland. Catena, 42, 361–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Grieve, I. C., Davidson, D. A., & Gordon, J. E. (1995). Nature, extent and severity of soil erosion in upland Scotland. Land Degradation and Development, 6, 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Groenier, J. S., Monlux, S., & Vachowski, B. (2008). Geosynthetics for Trails in Wet Areas (2nd ed.). USDA Forest Service Publication 0023-2838, MTDC Technology and Development Center, Missoula, MT, 26pp.Google Scholar
  68. Gutzwiller, K. J., Clements, K. L., Marcum, H. A., Wilkins, C. A., & Anderson, S. H. (1998). Vertical distribution of breeding-season birds: Is human intrusion influential? Wilson Bulletin, 110, 497–503.Google Scholar
  69. Gutzwiller, K. J., & Riffell, S. K. (2008). Does repeated human intrusion alter use of wildland sites by red squirrels? Multiyear experimental evidence. Journal of Mammalogy, 89, 374–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hammitt, W. E., Cole, D. N., & Monz, C. A. (2015). Wildland Recreation. Ecology and Management (3rd ed.). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 313pp.Google Scholar
  71. Hayes, P. (1997, February). In defence of erosion. The Great Outdoors Magazine.Google Scholar
  72. Hecnar, S. J., & M’Closkey, R. T. (1998). Effects of human disturbance on five-lined skink Eumeces fasciatus abundance and distribution. Biological Conservation, 85, 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hellmund, P. C. (1998). Planning Trails with Wildlife in Mind: A Handbook for Trail Planners. Denver, CO: Colorado Dept. of Natural Resources, Colorado State Parks, Colorado State Trails Program.Google Scholar
  74. Hesselbarth, W., Vachowski, B., & Davies, M. A. (2007). UFS Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook. Forest Service Technology and Development, Recreational Trails Program, Missoula, MT, 166pp.Google Scholar
  75. Hill, D., Hochin, D., Price, D., Tucker, G., Morris, R., & Treweek, J. (1997). Bird disturbance: Improving the quality and utility of disturbance research. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 275–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hingston, S. G. (1982). Revegetation of Subalpine Backcountry Campaigns: Principle and Guidelines. Resource Management Report Series KR-3, Alberta Recreation and Parks Division, Kananashis region.Google Scholar
  77. Hockett, K., Clark, A., Leung, Y.-F., Marion, J. L., & Park, L. (2010). Deterring Off-trail Hiking in Protected Natural Areas: Evaluating Options with Surveys and Unobtrusive Observation. Final Research Report, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Canal National Historical Park, Hagerstone, MD, 178pp.Google Scholar
  78. Hockett, K. S., Marion, J. L., & Leung, Y.-F. (2017). The efficacy of combined educational and site management actions in reducing off-trail hiking in an urban-proximate protected area. Journal of Environmental Management, 203, 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Holm, T. E., & Laursen, K. (2009). Experimental disturbance by walkers affects behaviour and territory density nesting black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa. Ibis, 151, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Huxley, T. (1970). Footpaths in the Countryside. Countryside Commission for Scotland, Perth.Google Scholar
  81. Ibanez-Alamo, J. D., & Soler, M. (2010). Investigator activities reduce nest predation in blackbirds Turdus merula. Journal of Avian Biology, 41, 208–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jones, E. (2013). Croagh Patrick Condition Report. Retrieved from
  83. Kasworm, W. F., & Manley, T. L. (1990). Road and trail influences on grizzly bears and black bears in Northwest Montana. In Bears: Their Biology and Management, Volume 8. 8th International Conference on Bear Research and Management, Victoria, BC, Canada, February 1989 (pp. 79–84).Google Scholar
  84. Kellogg, D. S., Rosenbaum, P. F., Kiska, D. L., Riddell, S. W., Welch, T. R., & Shaw, J. (2012). High fecal hand contamination among wilderness hikers. American Journal of Infection Control, 40, 893–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kent, M. (2012). Vegetation Description and Data Analysis: A Practical Approach (2nd ed.). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 428pp.Google Scholar
  86. Ketchledge, E. H., Leonard, R. E., & Richards, N. A. (1985). Rehabilitation of Alpine Vegetation in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. USDA Forest Service NE Forest Experiment Research Station, Paper NE 533, Broomall, PA.Google Scholar
  87. Knight, R. L., & Cole, D. N. (1991). Effects of recreational activity on wildlife in wildlands. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and National Resources Conference, 56, 238–247.Google Scholar
  88. Kuss, F. R., & Graefe, A. R. (1985). Effects of recreation trampling on natural area vegetation. Journal of Leisure Research, 17, 165–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Langbein, J., & Putnam, R. J. (1998). Behavioral responses of park red deer and fallow deer to disturbance and effects on population performance. Animal Welfare, 1, 19–38.Google Scholar
  90. Langston, R. H. W., Liley, D., Murison, G., Woodfield, E., & Clarke, R. T. (2007). What effects do walkers and dogs have on the distribution and productivity of breeding European nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus? Ibis, 149, 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Leseberg, A., Hockey, P. A. R., & Loewenthal, D. (2000). Human disturbance and the chick rearing ability of African black oystercatchers (Haematopus moquini): A geographical perspective. Biological Conservation, 96, 379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Leung, Y.-F., & Marion, J. L. (1996). Trail degradation as influenced by environmental factors. A state-of-knowledge review. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 51, 130–136.Google Scholar
  93. Leung, Y.-F., & Marion, J. L. (2000). Recreation Impacts and Management in Wilderness: A State-of-Knowledge Review (pp. 23–47). USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5.Google Scholar
  94. Leung, Y.-F., Newburger, T., Jones, M., Kuhn, B., & Woiderski, B. (2011). Developing a monitoring protocol for visitor-created informal trails in Yosemite National Park, USA. Environmental Management, 47, 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Liddle, M. J. (1975). A selective review of the ecological effects of human trampling on natural ecosystems. Biological Conservation, 7, 17–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Liddle, M. J. (1989). Recreation and the Environment: The Ecology of Recreation Impacts, Section 2: Vegetation and Wear. AES Working Paper 1/89, Australian Environmental Studies, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.Google Scholar
  97. Liddle, M. J. (1997). Recreation Ecology. London: Chapman and Hall, 639pp.Google Scholar
  98. Lord, A., Waas, J. R., & Innes, J. (1997). Effects of human activity on the behaviour of northern New Zealand dotterel Charadrius obscurus aquilonius chicks. Biological Conservation, 82, 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lord, A., Waas, J. R., Innes, J., & Whittingham, M. J. (2001). Effects of human approaches to nests of northern New Zealand dotterels. Biological Conservation, 98, 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Luka, C. G., & Hrsak, V. (2005). Influence of visitor numbers on breeding birds in the Paklenica National Park. Croatia. Ekologia (Bratislava), 24, 186–199.Google Scholar
  101. Madej, M. A., Weaver, W. E., & Hogans, D. K. (1994). Analysis of bank erosion on the Merced River, Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park., California, USA. Environmental Management, 18, 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Manning, R. E., & Anderson, L. E. (2012). Managing Outdoor Recreation. Case Studies in the National Parks. Cambridge, MA: CABI, 264pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Marcum, H. A. (2005). The Effects of Human Disturbance on Birds in Bastrop State Park. PhD thesis, Texas A&M University, USA.Google Scholar
  104. Marini, J. L., Dvorak, R. G., & Manning, R. E. (2008). Wildlife feeding in parks: Methods for monitoring the effectiveness of educational interventions and wildlife food attractions behaviors. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 13, 429–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Marion, J. L. (2016). A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking. Journal of Forestry, 114, 339–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Marion, J. L., & Cole, D. N. (1996). Spatial and temporal variations in soil and vegetation impacts on campsites: Delaware Gap National Recreation Area. Ecological Applications, 6, 520–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Marion, J. L., & Leung, Y.-F. (2004). Environmentally sustainable trail management. In R. Buckley (Ed.), Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism (Chap. 13, pp. 229–243), Ecotourism Series No. 2. Wallingford and Cambridge, MA: CABI.Google Scholar
  108. Marion, J. L., Leung, Y.-F., Eagleston, H., & Burroughs, K. (2016). A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research findings on visitor impacts to wilderness and protected natural areas. Journal of Forestry, 114, 352–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Marion, J. L., Martinez, T., & Proudman, D. (2000). Trekking poles: Can save your knees and the environment? Retrieved from
  110. Marion, J. L., & Olive, N. (2006). Addressing and Understanding Trail Degradation: Results from Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Park Service. Final Research Report, State University Department of Forestry, Blacksburg, VA, 80pp.Google Scholar
  111. Marion, J. L., Roggenbuck, J. W., & Manning, R. E. (1993). Problems and Practices in Backcountry Recreation Management: A Survey of National Park Service Managers. Natural Resources Report NPS/NRV/NRR 93/12.Google Scholar
  112. Marion, J. L., & Sober, T. (1987). Environmental impact management in the boundary waters canoe area wilderness. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 4, 7–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Marion, J. L., Wimpey, J. F., & Park, L. O. (2011). The science of trail surveys: Recreation ecology provides new tools for managing wilderness trails. Park Science, 28, 60–65.Google Scholar
  114. McGowan, C. P., & Simons, T. R. (2006). Effects of human recreation on the incubation behaviour of American oystercatchers. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 118, 485–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Meek, E. R. (1988). The breeding ecology and decline of the merlin Falco columbarius in Orkney. Bird Study, 35, 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Meyer, K. G. (2002). Managing Degraded Off-highway Vehicle Trails in Wet, Unstable and Sensitive Environments. USDA Forest Service Publication 0223-2821-MTDC, Missoula Technology and Development Center, Missoula, MT, 48pp.Google Scholar
  117. Miller, S. G., Knight, R. L., & Miller, C. K. (2001). Wildlife responses to pedestrians and dogs. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29, 124–132.Google Scholar
  118. Monlux, S., & Vachowski, B. (2000). Geosynthetics for Trails in Wet Areas. USDA Forest Service, Publication 0023-2838-MTDC, Technology and Development Center, Missoula, MT, 23pp.Google Scholar
  119. Monz, C. A., Marion, J. L., Croonan, K. A., Manning, R. E., Wimpey, J., & Carr, C. (2010). Assessment and monitoring of recreation impacts and resource conditions on mountain summits: Examples from the northern forest, USA. Mountain Research and Development, 30, 332–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Morgan, R. P. C. (1995). Soil Erosion and Conservation (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman, 198pp.Google Scholar
  121. Müller, C., Jenni-Eirmann, S., Blondel, J., Perret, P., Caro, S. P., Lambrechts, M., et al. (2006). Effect of human presence and handling on circulating corticosterone levels in breeding blue tits (Parus coeruleus). General and Comparative Endrocrinology, 148, 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. National Trust for Scotland. (2003). Upland Footpath Repair Techniques in the Cairngorm Mountains: A Review and Recommendations. Scottish Natural Heritage, Report No. 008 (ROAME NoF99LF02).Google Scholar
  123. Newton, I., Davis, P. E., & Moss, D. (1981). Distribution and breeding of red kites Milvus milvus in relation to land use in Wales, UK. Journal of Applied Ecology, 18, 173–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Nisbet, I. C. T. (2000). Disturbance, habituation and management of waterbird colonies. Waterbirds, 23, 312–332.Google Scholar
  125. Nudds, R. L., & Bryant, D. M. (2000). The energetic cost of short flights in birds. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 1561–1572.Google Scholar
  126. Patthey, P. S., Wirthuer, S., Signorell, N., & Arlettae, R. (2008). Impact of outdoor winter sports on the abundance of key indicator species of alpine ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 1704–1711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pease, M. L., Rose, R. K., & Butler, M. J. (2005). Effects of human recreation on the behavior of wintering ducks. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 33, 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pescott, O. L., & Stewart, G. B. (2014). Assessing the impact of human trampling on vegetation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental evidence. Peer Journal, 2, e360. Scholar
  129. Picozzi, N. (1971). Breeding performance and shooting bags of red grouse in relation to public access in the Peak District National Park, England. Biological Conservation, 3, 211–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Porter, M. (1990). Pennine Way Management Project, Final Report. Unpublished report to the Peak District National Park.Google Scholar
  131. Price, E. (1987). Footpath Erosion and Vegetation Changes, Beer Head (Devon). Unpublished BEd thesis, Liverpool Polytechnic.Google Scholar
  132. Pryor, P. (1986). The effects of disturbance on open Juncus trifidus heath in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland. In N. G. Bayfield & G. C. Barrow (Eds.), Recreational Ecology Research Report 9. London: RERG, Wye.Google Scholar
  133. Rasmussen, H., & Simpson, S. (2010). Disturbance of waterfowl by boaters on pool 4 of the upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and fish refuge. Society and Natural Resources, 23, 322–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ramos-Scharrón, C. E., Reale-Munroe, K., & Atkinson, S. C. (2014). Quantification and modelling of foot trail surface erosion in a dry sub-tropical setting. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 39, 1764–1777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reby, D., Cargnelutti, B., & Hewison, A. J. M. (1999). Contexts and possible functions of barking in roe deer. Animal Behavior, 57, 1121–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Recarte, J. M., Vincent, J. P., & Hewison, A. J. M. (1998). Flight responses of park fallow deer to the human observer. Behavioral Processes, 44, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Reed, B. C., & Rasnake, M. S. (2016). An assessment of coliform bacteria in water sources near Appalachian Trail shelters within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Wilderness Environmental Medicine, 27, 107–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Roovers, R., Verkeyen, K., Hermy, M., & Gulinck, H. (2004). Experimental trampling and vegetation recovery in some forest and heathland communities. Applied Vegetation Science, 7, 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ruddock, M., & Whitfield, D. P. (2007). A Review of Disturbance Distances in Selected Bird Species. Inverness, UK: Scottish Natural Heritage.Google Scholar
  140. Schlacher, T. A., Neilsen, T., & Weston, M. A. (2013). Human recreation alters behaviour profiles of non-breeding birds on open-coast sandy shores. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science, 118, 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Showler, D. A., Stewart, G. B., Sutherland, W. J., & Pullin, A. S. (2010).What is the Impact of Public Access on the Breeding Success of Ground-nesting and Cliff-nesting Birds? Systematic Review CE 005-010, (Sr16) Collaboration for Environmental Evidence, 74pp. Norwich. Retrieved from
  142. Sidaway, R. (1990). Birds and Walkers: A Review of Existing Research on Access to the Countryside and Disturbance to Birds. London: Ramblers Association.Google Scholar
  143. Smith, R. (1987, April). The three peaks project. The Great Outdoors Magazine, pp. 53–57.Google Scholar
  144. Smith-Castro, J. R., & Rodewald, A. D. (2010). Behavioral responses of nesting birds to human disturbance along recreational trails. Journal of Field Ornithology, 81, 130–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. South China Morning Post. (2018, April 6). Could a hiking pole ban protect Hong Kong’s country park trails, some of them rapidly eroding? Retrieved from
  146. Speight, M. C. D. (1973). Outdoor Recreation and Its Ecological Effects: A Bibliography and Review. Discussion Paper in Conservation No. 4, London.Google Scholar
  147. Steven, R., Pickering, C., & Castley, J. G. (2011). A review of the impacts of nature based recreation on birds. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 2287–2294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Stolen, E. D. (2003). The effect of vehicle passage on foraging behavior of wading birds. Waterbirds, 26, 429–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Summers, R. W., McFarlane, J., & Pearce-Higgins, J. W. (2007). Measuring avoidance by capercaillies Tetrao urogallus of woodland close to tracks. Wildlife Biology, 13, 19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Summers, R. W., Proctor, R., Thornton, M., & Avey, G. (2004). Habitat selection and diet of the Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus in abernethy Forest, Strathspey, Scotland. Bird Study, 51, 58–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Sun, D., & Liddle, M. J. (1993). Trampling resistance, stem flexibility and leaf strength in nine Australian grasses and herbs. Biological Conservation, 65, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Talbot, L. M., Turton, S. M., & Graheul, A. L. (2003). Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia. Journal of Environmental Management, 69, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Taylor, K., Anderson, P., Taylor, R., Longden, K., & Fisher, P. (2005). Dogs, Access and Nature Conservation. English Nature Research Report No. 649, English Nature, Peterborough.Google Scholar
  154. Theil, D., Jenni-Eirmann, S., Palme, R., & Jenni, L. (2011). Winter tourism increases stress hormone levels in the Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus. Ibis, 153, 122–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. TNS Travel and Tourism. (2008). Scottish Recreational Survey. Annual Summary Report, No. 295, Scottish Natural Heritage, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  156. Trew, M. (1973). The effects and management of trampling in coastal sand dunes. Journal of Environmental Planning and Pollution Control, 1, 38–49.Google Scholar
  157. Tyser, R. W., & Worley, C. A. (1992). Alien flora in grasslands adjacent to road and trail corridors in glacier National Park, Montana (USA). Conservation Biology, 6, 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ursem, C., Evans, S., Ger, K. A., Richards, J. R., & Derley, R. W. (2009). Surface water quality along the central John Muir Trail in the Sierra Nevada Mountains: Coliforms and algae. High Altitude Medicine and Biology, 10, 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. USDA Forest Service. (1985). Trails Management Handbook. FSH 2307-18, USDA, Washington, 144pp.Google Scholar
  160. Verboven, N., Ens, B. J., & Decherns, S. (2001). Effects of investigator disturbance on nest attendance and egg predation in Eurasian oystercatchers. The Auk, 118, 503–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wagar, J. A. (1964). The Carrying Capacity of Wildlands for Recreation. Forest Service Monograph, No. 77, 23pp.Google Scholar
  162. Ward, A. I., White, P. C. L., & Critchley, C. H. (2004). Roe deer Capreolus capreolus behaviour affects density estimates from distance sampling surveys. Mammal Review, 34, 315–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Watson, A. (1984). Paths and people in the Cairngorms. Scottish Geographical Magazine 100, pp. 151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Weimerskirch, H., Schaffer, S. A., Mabille, G., Martin, J., Boutard, O., & Rouanet, J. L. (2002). Heart rate and energy expenditure of incubating wandering albatrosses: Basal levels, natural variation and the effects of human disturbance. Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, 475–483.Google Scholar
  165. Whitfield, D. P., & Rae, R. (2014). Human disturbance of breeding wood sandpipers Tringa glareola: Implications for “alert distances” in prescribing buffer zones. Ornis Fennica, 91, 57–66.Google Scholar
  166. Yalden, D. W. (1992). The influence of recreational disturbance on common sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos breeding by an upland reservoir, in England. Biological Conservation, 61, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Yalden, D. W., & Yalden, P. E. (1989). The sensitivity of breeding golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria to human intruders. Bird Study, 36, 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Huddart
    • 1
  1. 1.Liverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations