As the European Union came into being, its emphasis on multicultural Europeanness was constructed on top of decades of law, policy, and programs designed to both include and exclude. Ideally human rights—such as the right to education—in the post-1945 work were supposed to be universal. And there was a period in the late 1960s and 1970s when the western European states toyed with the idea of complete education equality. By the time the European Union was founded in the 1990s, however, most states determine whose rights to ensure useing citizenship status and perceived cultural similarities or distance to determine whose rights to ensure. In consequence, across Europe children had different access to education depending on their specific citizenship status and ethnicity.