Advertisement

PCIT: Conceptualizing a Continuum of Prevention

  • Irene Brodd
  • Ciera E. Schoonover
  • Larissa N. Niec
Chapter

Abstract

Strengthening the parent–child relationship in early childhood has the potential to serve as a buffer against multiple negative developmental outcomes. Waiting until problems are pervasive or severe can be more costly, and most families in need of treatment do not receive it. Prevention models offer the possibility of reaching more families and building resilience prior to the onset of debilitating mental health issues. This chapter reviews research on existing PCIT-based prevention models across the continuum from universal to indicated prevention and describes in detail Family Camp, a selective prevention model designed to be implemented by natural helpers (i.e., lay health workers or other community members). Key adaptations of the Family Camp model include (1) reducing the intensity of the intervention for children with subclinical problem behaviors, (2) user-friendly materials that facilitate implementation by natural helpers, (3) increased focus on fathers and the importance of the father–child relationship, (4) intentional discussion about heritage and culture to address acculturation-related challenges, and (5) guidelines to increase the portability of the intervention within community settings. Finally, we offer recommendations for the future directions in the development, research, and implementation of PCIT prevention models, with a focus on developing a continuum of care.

Keywords

Prevention Brief PCIT Developmental cascades Lay health workers Natural helpers Family Camp Behavior parent training programs 

References

  1. Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., Niec, L. N., Barnett, M. L., & Bell, K. M. (2013). Incorporating natural helpers to address service disparities for young children with conduct problems. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(9), 1463–1467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., Niec, L. N., Barnett, M. L., Bell, K. M., Aguilar, G., Vilca, J., … Peer, S. O. (2014). Exploring the role of natural helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems. Children and Youth Services Review, 40, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aos, S., Lieb, R., Mayfield, J., Miller, M., & Pennucci, A. (2004). Benefits and costs of prevention and early intervention programs for youth (Report No. 04-07-3901). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy. Retrieved from http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/Reports/121.
  4. Ayala, G. X., Vaz, L., Earp, J. A., Elder, J. P., & Cherrington, A. (2010). Outcome effectiveness of the lay health advisor model among Latinos in the United States: An examination by role. Health Education Research, 25(5), 815–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagner, D. M., Coxe, S., Hungerford, G. M., Garcia, D., Barroso, N. E., Hernandez, J., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2016). Behavioral parent training in infancy: A window of opportunity for high-risk families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(5), 901–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagner, D. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2003). Father involvement in parent training: When does it matter? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 599–605.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s1537442jccp3204_13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagner, D. M., Rodríguez, G. M., Blake, C. A., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2013). Home-based preventive parenting intervention for at-risk infants and their families: An open trial. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(3), 334–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnett, M. L., Lau, A. S., & Miranda, J. (2018). Lay health worker involvement in evidence-based treatment delivery: A conceptual model to address disparities in care. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 14, 185–208. Advance online publication.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkovits, M. D., O’Brien, K. A., Carter, C. G., & Eyberg, S. M. (2010). Early identification and intervention for behavior problems in primary care: A comparison of two abbreviated versions of parent-child interaction therapy. Behavior Therapy, 41(3), 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calzada, E. J., Caldwell, M. B., Brotman, L. M., Brown, E. J., Wallace, S. A., McQuaid, J. H., … O’Neal, C. R. (2005). Training community members to serve as paraprofessionals in an evidence-based, prevention program for parents of preschoolers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(3), 387–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carpenter, A. L., Puliafico, A. C., Kurtz, S. M., Pincus, D. B., & Comer, J. S. (2014). Extending parent–child interaction therapy for early childhood internalizing problems: New advances for an overlooked population. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17(4), 340–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christian, A., Niec, L. N., Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., & Kassab, V. (2014). Dissemination of an evidencebased parenting program: Clinician perspectives on training and implementation. Children and Youth Services Review, 43, 8–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., Maggioni, F., Evans-Lacko, S., Bezborodovs, N., … Thornicroft, G. (2015). What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological Medicine, 45(1), 11–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, M. A., & Piquero, A. R. (2009). New evidence on the monetary value of saving a high risk youth. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25(1), 25–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Malone, P. S., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2008). Testing an idealized dynamic cascade model of the development of serious violence in adolescence. Child Development, 79, 1907–1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Domenech Rodríguez, M., Davis, M. R., Rodríguez, J., & Bates, S. C. (2006). Observed parenting practices of first-generation Latino families. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Donenberg, G., & Baker, B. L. (1993). The impact of young children with externalizing behaviors on their families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21(2), 179–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dunlap, G., Strain, P. S., Fox, L., Carta, J. J., Conroy, M., Smith, B. J., … Sailor, W. (2006). Prevention and intervention with young children’s challenging behavior: Perspectives regarding current knowledge. Behavioral Disorders, 32(1), 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Foster, E. M., Jones, D. E., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2005). The high costs of aggression: Public expenditures resulting from conduct disorder. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1767–1772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA)-Mental Health. (2018). [Map showing geographic regions that are experiencing shortages of mental health providers March 30, 2018]. Storage Areas. Retrieved from https://datawarehouse.hrsa.gov/topics/shortageAreas.aspx.
  21. Israel, B. A. (1985). Social networks and social support: Implications for natural helper and community level interventions. Health Education Quarterly, 12, 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kazdin, A. E. (2008). Evidence-based treatments and delivery of psychological services: Shifting our emphases to increase impact. Psychological Services, 5(3), 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kazdin, A. E. (2011). Evidence-based treatment research: Advances, limitations, and next steps. American Psychologist, 66(8), 685–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kazdin, A. E., & Blase, S. L. (2011). Rebooting psychotherapy research and practice to reduce the burden of mental illness. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Knapp, P. A., & Deluty, R. H. (1989). Relative effectiveness of two behavioral parent training programs. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 314–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koskan, A. M., Hilfinger Messias, D. K., Friedman, D. B., Brandt, H. M., & Walsemann, K. M. (2013). Program planners’ perspectives of promatoras roles, recruitment, and selection. Ethnicity and Health, 18, 262–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee, E. L., Wilsie, C. C., & Brestan-Knight, E. (2011). Using Parent–Child Interaction Therapy to develop a pre-parent education module. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(7), 1254–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491–495.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579410000222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McBride, B. A., & Rane, T. R. (1997). Father/male involvement in early childhood programs: Issues and challenges. Early Childhood Education Journal, 25(1), 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. L. (2003). Helping the non-compliant child: Family-based treatment for oppositional behavior. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  31. Meyers, S. A. (1993). Adapting parent education programs to meet the needs of fathers: An ecological perspective. Family Relations, 42, 447–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Montgomery, E., Kunik, M., Wilson, N., Stanley, M., & Weiss, B. (2010). Can paraprofessionals deliver cognitive-behavioral therapy to treat anxiety and depressive symptoms? Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 74(1), 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Munoz, R., Mrazek, P., & Haggerty, R. (1996). Institute of medicine report on prevention of mental disorders. American Psychologist, 51(11), 1116–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Niec, L. N., Acevedo-Polakovich, I. D., Abbenante-Honold, E., Christian, A. S., Barnett, M. L., Aguilar, G., & Peer, S. O. (2014). Working together to solve disparities: Latina/o parents’ contributions to the adaption of a preventive intervention for childhood conduct problems. Psychological Services, 11(4), 410–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Niec, L. N., Barnett, M. L., Prewett, M. S., & Shanley, J. R. (2016). Group parent–child interaction therapy: A randomized control trial for the treatment of conduct problems in young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(8), 682–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Niec, L. N., Eyberg, E., Funderburk, B., & Acevedo, I. (2017). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Selective Prevention: Protocol manual. Mount Pleasant, MI: CMU Center for Children, Families and Communities.Google Scholar
  37. Niec, L. N., Peer, S. O., & Courrégé, S. (2018). Psychosocial strengths inventory of children and adolescents (PSICA): Preliminary psychometrics and potential applications. Mount Pleasant, MI: Central Michigan University.Google Scholar
  38. Parra Cardona, J. R., Holtrop, K., Córdova, D., Escobar-Chew, A. R., Horsford, S., Tams, L., … Fitzgerald, H. E. (2009). “Queremos aprender”: Latino immigrants’ call to integrate cultural adaptation with best practice knowledge in a parenting intervention. Family Process, 48(2), 211–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Proctor, K. B., & Brestan-Knight, E. (2016). Evaluating the use of assessment paradigms for preventive interventions: A review of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Children and Youth Services Review, 62, 72–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rhodes, S. D., Foley, K. L., Zometa, C. S., & Bloom, F. R. (2007). Lay health advisor interventions among Hispanics/Latinos: A qualitative systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(5), 418–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Satcher, D. (2000). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General-Executive summary. Professional Psychology: Research and Science, 31, 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schuhmann, E. M., Foote, R. C., Eyberg, S. M., Boggs, S. R., & Algina, J. (1998). Efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy: Interim report of a randomized trial with short-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(1), 34–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Scott, S., Knapp, M., Henderson, J., & Maughan, B. (2001). Financial cost of social exclusion: Follow up study of antisocial children into adulthood. BMJ, 323(7306), 191–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shanley, J. R., & Niec, L. N. (2010). Coaching parents to change: The impact of in vivo feedback on parents’ acquisition of skills. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39(2), 282–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stacciarini, J. R., Rosa, A., Ortiz, M., Munari, D. B., Uicab, G., & Balam, M. (2012). Promotaras in mental health: A review of English, Spanish, and Portuguese literature. Family & Community Health: The Journal of Health Promotion & Maintenance, 35(2), 92–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Triemstra, K. T., Niec, L. N., Peer, S. O., & Christian-Brandt, A. (2017). The influence of conventional masculine gender role norms on parental attitudes toward seeking psychological services for children. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 18(4), 311–320.  https://doi.org/10.1037/men0000055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Webster-Stratton, C. (1985). The effects of father involvement in parent training for conduct problem children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26(5), 801–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Whipple, E. E., & Webster-Stratton, C. (1991). The role of parental stress in physically abusive families. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15(3), 279–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irene Brodd
    • 1
  • Ciera E. Schoonover
    • 1
  • Larissa N. Niec
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Center for Children, Families, and CommunitiesCentral Michigan UniversityMount PleasantUSA

Personalised recommendations