Advertisement

Strongly Magnetized Pulsars: Explosive Events and Evolution

  • Konstantinos N. GourgouliatosEmail author
  • Paolo Esposito
Chapter
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 457)

Abstract

Well before the radio discovery of pulsars offered the first observational confirmation for their existence (Hewish et al., Nature 217:709–713, 1968), it had been suggested that neutron stars might be endowed with very strong magnetic fields of 1010–1014 G (Hoyle et al., Nature 203:914–916, 1964; Pacini, Nature 216:567–568, 1967). It is because of their magnetic fields that these otherwise small ed inert, cooling dead stars emit radio pulses and shine in various part of the electromagnetic spectrum. But the presence of a strong magnetic field has more subtle and sometimes dramatic consequences: In the last decades of observations indeed, evidence mounted that it is likely the magnetic field that makes of an isolated neutron star what it is among the different observational manifestations in which they come. The contribution of the magnetic field to the energy budget of the neutron star can be comparable or even exceed the available kinetic energy. The most magnetised neutron stars in particular, the magnetars, exhibit an amazing assortment of explosive events, underlining the importance of their magnetic field in their lives. In this chapter we review the recent observational and theoretical achievements, which not only confirmed the importance of the magnetic field in the evolution of neutron stars, but also provide a promising unification scheme for the different observational manifestations in which they appear. We focus on the role of their magnetic field as an energy source behind their persistent emission, but also its critical role in explosive events.

Notes

Acknowledgements

KNG acknowledges the support of STFC Grant No. ST/N000676/1. PE acknowledges funding in the framework of the NWO Vidi award A.2320.0076.

References

  1. Aguilera, D.N., Pons, J.A., Miralles, J.A.: 2D Cooling of magnetized neutron stars. Astron. Astrophys. 486, 255–271 (2008a)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera, D.N., Pons, J.A., Miralles, J.A.: The impact of magnetic field on the thermal evolution of neutron stars. Astrophys. J. Lett. 673, L167 (2008b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akgün, T., Miralles, J.A., Pons, J.A., Cerdá-Durán, P.: The force-free twisted magnetosphere of a neutron star. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 462, 1894–1909 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akgün, T., Cerdá-Durán, P., Miralles, J.A., Pons, J.A.: Long-term evolution of the force-free twisted magnetosphere of a magnetar. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 472, 3914–3923 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, M.P., Horvath, J.E.: Influence of an internal magnetar on supernova remnant expansion. Astrophys. J. 616, 346–356 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, P.W., Itoh, N.: Pulsar glitches and restlessness as a hard superfluidity phenomenon. Nature 256, 25–27 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, G.E., Gaensler, B.M., Slane, P.O., Rea, N., Kaplan, D.L., Posselt, B., Levin, L., Johnston, S., Murray, S.S., Brogan, C.L., Bailes, M., Bates, S., Benjamin, R.A., Bhat, N.D.R., Burgay, M., Burke-Spolaor, S., Chakrabarty, D., D’Amico, N., Drake, J.J., Esposito, P., Grindlay, J.E., Hong, J., Israel, G.L., Keith, M.J., Kramer, M., Lazio, T.J.W., Lee, J.C., Mauerhan, J.C., Milia, S., Possenti, A., Stappers, B., Steeghs, D.T.H.: Multi-wavelength observations of the radio Magnetar PSR J1622–4950 and discovery of its possibly associated supernova remnant. Astrophys. J. 751, 53 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andersson, N., Dionysopoulou, K., Hawke, I., Comer, G.L.: Beyond ideal magnetohydrodynamics: resistive, reactive and relativistic plasmas. Classical Quantum Gravity 34, 125002 (2017)ADSMathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Antonopoulou, D., Weltevrede, P., Espinoza, C.M., Watts, A.L., Johnston, S., Shannon, R.M., Kerr, M.: The unusual glitch recoveries of the high-magnetic-field pulsar J1119–6127. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 447, 3924–3935 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aptekar, R.L., Frederiks, D.D., Golenetskii, S.V., Il’inskii, V.N., Mazets, E.P., Pal’shin, V.D., Butterworth, P.S., Cline, T.L.: Konus catalog of soft gamma repeater activity: 1978 to 2000. Astrophys. J. Supp. Ser. 137, 227–277 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Archibald, R.F., Kaspi, V., Ng, C.-Y., Gourgouliatos, K.N., Tsang, D., Scholz, P., Beardmore, A.P., Gehrels, N., Kennea, J.A.: An anti-glitch in a magnetar. Nature 497, 591–593 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Archibald, R.F., Kaspi, V.M., Ng, C.-Y., Scholz, P., Beardmore, A.P., Gehrels, N., Kennea, J.A.: Repeated, delayed torque variations following X-ray flux enhancements in the Magnetar 1E 1048.1–5937. Astrophys. J. 800, 33 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Archibald, R.F., Kaspi, V.M., Tendulkar, S.P., Scholz, P.: A Magnetar-like outburst from a high-B radio pulsar. Astrophys. J. Lett. 829, L21 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Archibald, R.F., Burgay, M., Lyutikov, M., Kaspi, V.M., Esposito, P., Israel, G., Kerr, M., Possenti, A., Rea, N., Sarkissian, J., Scholz, P., Tendulkar, S.P.: Magnetar-like X-ray bursts suppress pulsar radio emission. Astrophys. J. Lett. (2017, in press). (eprint: astro-ph.HE/1710.03718)Google Scholar
  15. Beloborodov, A.M.: Untwisting magnetospheres of neutron stars. Astrophys. J. 703, 1044–1060 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beloborodov, A.M., Levin, Y.: Thermoplastic waves in magnetars. Astrophys. J. Lett. 794, L24 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beloborodov, A.M., Thompson, C.: Corona of magnetars. Astrophys. J. 657, 967–993 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Biskamp, D., Schwarz, E., Drake, J.F.: Two-dimensional electron magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1264–1267 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Blandford, R.D., Applegate, J.H., Hernquist, L.: Thermal origin of neutron star magnetic fields. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 204, 1025–1048 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Borghese, A., Rea, N., Coti Zelati, F., Tiengo, A., Turolla, R.: Discovery of a strongly phase-variable spectral feature in the isolated neutron star RX J0720.4–3125. Astrophys. J. Lett. 807, L20 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Borghese, A., Rea, N., Coti Zelati, F., Tiengo, A., Turolla, R., Zane, S.: Narrow phase-dependent features in X-ray dim isolated neutron stars: a new detection and upper limits. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 468, 2975–2983 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Braithwaite, J., Spruit, H.C.: A fossil origin for the magnetic field in A stars and white dwarfs. Nature 431, 819–821 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Braithwaite, J., Spruit, H.C.: Evolution of the magnetic field in magnetars. Astron. Astrophys. 450, 1097–1106 (2006)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bransgrove, A., Levin, Y., Beloborodov, A.: Magnetic field evolution of neutron stars I: basic formalism, numerical techniques, and first results.Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. (2017, in press). Eprint: astro-ph.HE/1709.09167Google Scholar
  25. Brown, E.F., Cumming, A.: Mapping crustal heating with the cooling light curves of quasi-persistent transients. Astrophys. J. 698, 1020–1032 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bucciantini, N., Quataert, E., Arons, J., Metzger, B.D., Thompson, T.A.: Magnetar-driven bubbles and the origin of collimated outflows in gamma-ray bursts. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 380, 1541–1553 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burgay, M., Possenti, A., Kerr, M., Esposito, P., Rea, N., Zelati, F.C., Israel, G.L., Johnston, S.: Pulsed radio emission from PSR J1119–6127 disappeared. Astron. Tel. 9286 (2016a)Google Scholar
  28. Burgay, M., Possenti, A., Kerr, M., Esposito, P., Rea, N., Zelati, F.C., Israel, G.L., Johnston, S.: Pulsed radio emission from PSR J1119–6127 re-activated. Astron. Tel. 9366 (2016b)Google Scholar
  29. Camilo, F., Kaspi, V.M., Lyne, A.G., Manchester, R.N., Bell, J.F., D’Amico, N., McKay, N.P.F., Crawford, F.: Discovery of two high magnetic field radio pulsars. Astrophys. J. 541, 367–373 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Camilo, F., Ransom, S.M., Halpern, J.P., Reynolds, J., Helfand, D.J., Zimmerman, N., Sarkissian, J.: Transient pulsed radio emission from a magnetar. Nature 442, 892–895 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Camilo, F., Ransom, S.M., Halpern, J.P., Reynolds, J.: 1E 1547.0–5408: a radio-emitting magnetar with a rotation period of 2 seconds. Astrophys. J. Lett. 666, L93–L96 (2007a)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Camilo, F., Cognard, I., Ransom, S.M., Halpern, J.P., Reynolds, J., Zimmerman, N., Gotthelf, E.V., Helfand, D.J., Demorest, P., Theureau, G., Backer, D.C.: The magnetar XTE J1810–197: variations in torque, radio flux density, and pulse profile morphology. Astrophys. J. 663, 497–504 (2007b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Castillo, F., Reisenegger, A., Valdivia, J.A.: Magnetic field evolution and equilibrium configurations in neutron star cores: the effect of ambipolar diffusion. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 471, 507–522 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cerdá-Durán, P., Stergioulas, N., Font, J.A.: Alfvén QPOs in magnetars in the anelastic approximation. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 397, 1607–1620 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cho, J., Lazarian, A.: The anisotropy of electron magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Astrophys. J. Lett. 615, L41–L44 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chugunov, A.I., Horowitz, C.J.: Breaking stress of neutron star crust. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 407, L54–L58 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ciolfi, R., Rezzolla, L.: Poloidal-field instability in magnetized relativistic stars. Astrophys. J. 760, 1 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ciolfi, R., Rezzolla, L.: Twisted-torus configurations with large toroidal magnetic fields in relativistic stars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 435, L43–L47 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Clark, J.S., Muno, M.P., Negueruela, I., Dougherty, S.M., Crowther, P.A., Goodwin, S.P., de Grijs, R.: Unveiling the X-ray point source population of the Young Massive Cluster Westerlund 1. Astron. Astrophys. 477, 147–163 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Clark, J.S., Ritchie, B.W., Najarro, F., Langer, N., Negueruela, I.: A VLT/FLAMES survey for massive binaries in Westerlund 1. IV. Wd1–5 - binary product and a pre-supernova companion for the magnetar CXOU J1647–45? Astron. Astrophys. 565, A90 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Colaiuda, A., Beyer, H., Kokkotas, K.D.: On the quasi-periodic oscillations in magnetars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 396, 1441–1448 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Coti Zelati, F., Rea, N., Pons, J.A., Campana, S., Esposito, P.: Systematic study of magnetar outbursts. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 474, 961–1017 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. D’Aì, A., Evans, P.A., Burrows, D.N., Kuin, N.P.M., Kann, D.A., Campana, S., Maselli, A., Romano, P., Cusumano, G., La Parola, V., Barthelmy, S.D., Beardmore, A.P., Cenko, S.B., De Pasquale, M., Gehrels, N., Greiner, J., Kennea, J.A., Klose, S., Melandri, A., Nousek, J.A., Osborne, J.P., Palmer, D.M., Sbarufatti, B., Schady, P., Siegel, M.H., Tagliaferri, G., Yates, R., Zane, S.: Evidence for the magnetar nature of 1E 161348–5055 in RCW 103. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 463, 2394–2404 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dall’Osso, S., Shore, S.N., Stella, L.: Early evolution of newly born magnetars with a strong toroidal field. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 398, 1869–1885 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Davies, B., Figer, D.F., Kudritzki, R.-P., Trombley, C., Kouveliotou, C., Wachter, S.: The progenitor mass of the magnetar SGR1900+14. Astrophys. J. 707, 844–851 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. De Luca, A., Caraveo, P.A., Mereghetti, S., Tiengo, A., Bignami, G.F.: A long-period, violently variable X-ray source in a young supernova remnant. Science 313, 814–817 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Deutsch, A.J.: The electromagnetic field of an idealized star in rigid rotation in vacuo. Annales d’Astrophysique 18, 1 (1955)ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Dib, R., Kaspi, V.M.: 16 yr of RXTE monitoring of five anomalous X-ray pulsars. Astrophys. J. 784, 37 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dib, R., Kaspi, V.M., Gavriil, F.P.: Glitches in anomalous X-ray pulsars. Astrophys. J. 673, 1044–1061 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Duncan, R.C.: Global seismic oscillations in soft gamma repeaters. Astrophys. J. Lett. 498, L45–L49 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Duncan, R.C., Thompson, C.: Formation of very strongly magnetized neutron stars - implications for gamma-ray bursts. Astrophys. J. Lett. 392, L9–L13 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Eatough, R.P., Falcke, H., Karuppusamy, R., Lee, K.J., Champion, D.J., Keane, E.F., Desvignes, G., Schnitzeler, D.H.F.M., Spitler, L.G., Kramer, M., Klein, B., Bassa, C., Bower, G.C., Brunthaler, A., Cognard, I., Deller, A.T., Demorest, P.B., Freire, P.C.C., Kraus, A., Lyne, A.G., Noutsos, A., Stappers, B., Wex, N.: A strong magnetic field around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy. Nature 501, 391–394 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Elfritz, J.G., Pons, J.A., Rea, N., Glampedakis, K., Viganò, D.: Simulated magnetic field expulsion in neutron star cores. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 456, 4461–4474 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Esposito, P., Mereghetti, S., Tiengo, A., Sidoli, L., Feroci, M., Woods, P.: Five years of SGR 1900+14 observations with BeppoSAX. Astron. Astrophys. 461, 605–612 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Esposito, P., Israel, G.L., Turolla, R., Tiengo, A., Götz, D., De Luca, A., Mignani, R.P., Zane, S., Rea, N., Testa, V., Caraveo, P.A., Chaty, S., Mattana, F., Mereghetti, S., Pellizzoni, A., Romano, P.: Early X-ray and optical observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 0418+5729. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 405, 1787–1795 (2010)ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Esposito, P., Israel, G.L., Turolla, R., Mattana, F., Tiengo, A., Possenti, A., Zane, S., Rea, N., Burgay, M., Götz, D., Mereghetti, S., Stella, L., Wieringa, M.H., Sarkissian, J.M., Enoto, T., Romano, P., Sakamoto, T., Nakagawa, Y.E., Makishima, K., Nakazawa, K., Nishioka, H., François-Martin, C.: Long-term spectral and timing properties of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1833–0832 and detection of extended X-ray emission around the radio pulsar PSR B1830–08. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 416, 205–215 (2011a)Google Scholar
  57. Esposito, P., Turolla, R., de Luca, A., Israel, G.L., Possenti, A., Burrows, D.N.: Swift monitoring of the central X-ray source in RCW 103. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 418, 170–175 (2011b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fabian, A.C.: Theories of the nuclei of active galaxies. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 366, 449–459 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Faucher-Giguère, C.-A., Kaspi, V.M.: Birth and evolution of isolated radio pulsars. Astrophys. J. 643, 332–355 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ferrario, L., Wickramasinghe, D.: Origin and evolution of magnetars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 389, L66–L70 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gabler, M., Cerdá Durán, P., Font, J.A., Müller, E., Stergioulas, N.: Magneto-elastic oscillations and the damping of crustal shear modes in magnetars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 410, L37–L41 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gabler, M., Cerdá-Durán, P., Stergioulas, N., Font, J.A., Müller, E.: Imprints of superfluidity on magnetoelastic quasiperiodic oscillations of soft gamma-ray repeaters. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(21), 211102 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gaensler, B.M., Kouveliotou, C., Gelfand, J.D., Taylor, G.B., Eichler, D., Wijers, R.A.M.J., Granot, J., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., Lyubarsky, Y.E., Hunstead, R.W., Campbell-Wilson, D., van der Horst, A.J., McLaughlin, M.A., Fender, R.P., Garrett, M.A., Newton-McGee, K.J., Palmer, D.M., Gehrels, N., Woods, P.M.: An expanding radio nebula produced by a giant flare from the magnetar SGR 1806–20. Nature 434, 1104–1106 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gavriil, F.P., Kaspi, V.M.: Anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1048.1–5937: pulsed flux flares and large torque variations. Astrophys. J. Lett. 609, L67–L70 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gavriil, F.P., Kaspi, V.M., Woods, P.M.: Magnetar-like X-ray bursts from an anomalous X-ray pulsar. Nature 419, 142–144 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gavriil, F.P., Gonzalez, M.E., Gotthelf, E.V., Kaspi, V.M., Livingstone, M.A., Woods, P.M.: Magnetar-like emission from the young pulsar in Kes 75. Science 319, 1802– (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Geppert, U.: Magneto-thermal evolution of neutron stars with emphasis to radio pulsars. J. Astrophys. Astron. 38, 46 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Geppert, U., Viganò, D.: Creation of magnetic spots at the neutron star surface. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 444, 3198–3208 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Geppert, U., Küker, M., Page, D.: Temperature distribution in magnetized neutron star crusts. Astron. Astrophys. 426, 267–277 (2004)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Geppert, U., Küker, M., Page, D.: Temperature distribution in magnetized neutron star crusts. II. The effect of a strong toroidal component. Astron. Astrophys. 457, 937–947 (2006)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Giacomazzo, B., Perna, R.: Formation of stable magnetars from binary neutron star mergers. Astrophys. J. Lett. 771, L26 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gill, R., Heyl, J.S.: On the trigger mechanisms for soft gamma-ray repeater giant flares. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 407, 1926–1932 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Glampedakis, K., Jones, D.I., Samuelsson, L.: Ambipolar diffusion in superfluid neutron stars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 413, 2021–2030 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Goldreich, P., Julian, W.H.: Pulsar electrodynamics. Astrophys. J. 157, 869 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Goldreich, P., Reisenegger, A.: Magnetic field decay in isolated neutron stars. Astrophys. J. 395, 250–258 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gombrich, E.H.: The Story of Art, 16th edn. Phaidon Press, London (1995)Google Scholar
  77. Gonzalez, M.E., Kaspi, V.M., Lyne, A.G., Pivovaroff, M.J.: An XMM-Newton observation of the high magnetic field radio pulsar PSR B0154+61. Astrophys. J. Lett. 610, L37–L40 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gotthelf, E.V., Halpern, J.P., Alford, J.: The spin-down of PSR J0821–4300 and PSR J1210–5226: confirmation of central compact objects as anti-magnetars. Astrophys. J. 765, 58 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Götz, D., Mereghetti, S., Molkov, S., Hurley, K., Mirabel, I.F., Sunyaev, R., Weidenspointner, G., Brandt, S., del Santo, M., Feroci, M., Göğüş, E., von Kienlin, A., van der Klis, M., Kouveliotou, C., Lund, N., Pizzichini, G., Ubertini, P., Winkler, C., Woods, P.M.: Two years of INTEGRAL monitoring of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1806–20: from quiescence to frenzy. Astron. Astrophys. 445, 313–321 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Göğüş, E., Lin, L., Kaneko, Y., Kouveliotou, C., Watts, A.L., Chakraborty, M., Alpar, M.A., Huppenkothen, D., Roberts, O.J., Younes, G., van der Horst, A.J.: Magnetar-like X-ray bursts from a rotation-powered pulsar, PSR J1119–6127. Astrophys. J. Lett. 829, L25 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gourgouliatos, K.N., Cumming, A.: Hall attractor in axially symmetric magnetic fields in neutron star crusts. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(17), 171101 (2014a)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gourgouliatos, K.N., Cumming, A.: Hall effect in neutron star crusts: evolution, endpoint and dependence on initial conditions. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 438, 1618–1629 (2014b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gourgouliatos, K.N., Cumming, A.: Hall drift and the braking indices of young pulsars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 446, 1121–1128 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gourgouliatos, K.N., Hollerbach, R.: Resistive tearing instability in electron MHD: application to neutron star crusts. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 463, 3381–3389 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gourgouliatos, K.N., Hollerbach, R.: Magnetic axis drift and magnetic spot formation in neutron stars with toroidal fields. Astrophys. J. 852(1), article id. 21, 12 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gourgouliatos, K.N., Vlahakis, N.: Relativistic expansion of a magnetized fluid. Geophys.Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 104, 431–450 (2010)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gourgouliatos, K.N., Cumming, A., Reisenegger, A., Armaza, C., Lyutikov, M., Valdivia, J.A.: Hall equilibria with toroidal and poloidal fields: application to neutron stars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 434, 2480–2490 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gourgouliatos, K.N., Kondić, T., Lyutikov, M., Hollerbach, R.: Magnetar activity via the density-shear instability in Hall-MHD. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 453, L93–L97 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gourgouliatos, K.N., Wood, T.S., Hollerbach, R.: Magnetic field evolution in magnetar crusts through three-dimensional simulations. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 113, 3944–3949 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Göǧüş, E., Woods, P.M., Kouveliotou, C., Finger, M.H., Pal’shin, V., Kaneko, Y., Golenetskii, S., Frederiks, D., Airhart, C.: Extended tails from SGR 1806–20 bursts. Astrophys. J. 740, 55 (2011)Google Scholar
  91. Greiner, J., Mazzali, P.A., Kann, D.A., Krühler, T., Pian, E., Prentice, S., Olivares E., F., Rossi, A., Klose, S., Taubenberger, S., Knust, F., Afonso, P.M.J., Ashall, C., Bolmer, J., Delvaux, C., Diehl, R., Elliott, J., Filgas, R., Fynbo, J.P.U., Graham, J.F., Guelbenzu, A.N., Kobayashi, S., Leloudas, G., Savaglio, S., Schady, P., Schmidl, S., Schweyer, T., Sudilovsky, V., Tanga, M., Updike, A.C., van Eerten, H., Varela, K.: A very luminous magnetar-powered supernova associated with an ultra-long γ-ray burst. Nature 523, 189–192 (2015)Google Scholar
  92. Gullón, M., Miralles, J.A., Viganò, D., Pons, J.A.: Population synthesis of isolated neutron stars with magneto-rotational evolution. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 443, 1891–1899 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gullón, M., Pons, J.A., Miralles, J.A., Viganò, D., Rea, N., Perna, R.: Population synthesis of isolated neutron stars with magneto-rotational evolution - II. From radio-pulsars to magnetars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 454, 615–625 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gusakov, M.E., Kantor, E.M., Ofengeim, D.D.: On the evolution of magnetic field in neutron stars. ArXiv e-prints (2017)Google Scholar
  95. Haskell, B., Melatos, A.: Models of pulsar glitches. Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 24, 1530008 (2015)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Heger, A., Woosley, S.E., Spruit, H.C.: Presupernova evolution of differentially rotating massive stars including magnetic fields. Astrophys. J. 626, 350–363 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hewish, A., Bell, S., Pilkington, J., Scott, P., Collins, R.: Observation of a rapidly pulsating radio source. Nature 217, 709–713 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ho, W.C.G.: Evolution of a buried magnetic field in the central compact object neutron stars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 414, 2567–2575 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ho, W.C.G., Andersson, N.: Ejector and propeller spin-down: how might a superluminous supernova millisecond magnetar become the 6.67 h pulsar in RCW 103. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 464, L65–L69 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hobbs, G., Lyne, A.G., Kramer, M., Martin, C.E., Jordan, C.: Long-term timing observations of 374 pulsars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 353, 1311–1344 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hobbs, G., Lyne, A.G., Kramer, M.: An analysis of the timing irregularities for 366 pulsars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 402, 1027–1048 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hollerbach, R., Rüdiger, G.: The influence of Hall drift on the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 337, 216–224 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hollerbach, R., Rüdiger, G.: Hall drift in the stratified crusts of neutron stars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 347, 1273–1278 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Horowitz, C.J., Kadau, K.: Breaking strain of neutron star crust and gravitational waves. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(19), 191102 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hoyle, F., Narlikar, J.V., Wheeler, J.A.: Electromagnetic waves from very dense stars. Nature 203, 914–916 (1964)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hoyos, J.H., Reisenegger, A., Valdivia, J.A.: Asymptotic, non-linear solutions for ambipolar diffusion in one dimension. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 408, 1730–1741 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hurley, K., Cline, T., Mazets, E., Barthelmy, S., Butterworth, P., Marshall, F., Palmer, D., Aptekar, R., Golenetskii, S., Il’Inskii, V., Frederiks, D., McTiernan, J., Gold, R., Trombka, J.: A giant periodic flare from the soft γ-ray repeater SGR1900+14. Nature 397, 41–43 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hurley, K., Boggs, S.E., Smith, D.M., Duncan, R.C., Lin, R., Zoglauer, A., Krucker, S., Hurford, G., Hudson, H., Wigger, C., Hajdas, W., Thompson, C., Mitrofanov, I., Sanin, A., Boynton, W., Fellows, C., von Kienlin, A., Lichti, G., Rau, A., Cline, T.: An exceptionally bright flare from SGR 1806–20 and the origins of short-duration γ-ray bursts. Nature 434, 1098–1103 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Igoshev, A.P., Popov, S.B.: Magnetic field decay in normal radio pulsars. Astron. Nachr. 336, 831 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Inan, U.S., Lehtinen, N.G., Lev-Tov, S.J., Johnson, M.P., Bell, T.F., Hurley, K.: Ionization of the lower ionosphere by γ-rays from a magnetar: detection of a low energy (3–10 keV) component. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3357–3360 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Inan, U.S., Lehtinen, N.G., Moore, R.C., Hurley, K., Boggs, S., Smith, D.M., Fishman, G.J.: Massive disturbance of the daytime lower ionosphere by the giant γ-ray flare from magnetar SGR 1806–20. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L08103 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Israel, G.L., Belloni, T., Stella, L., Rephaeli, Y., Gruber, D.E., Casella, P., Dall’Osso, S., Rea, N., Persic, M., Rothschild, R.E.: The discovery of rapid X-ray oscillations in the tail of the SGR 1806–20 hyperflare. Astrophys. J. Lett. 628, L53–L56 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Israel, G.L., Romano, P., Mangano, V., Dall’Osso, S., Chincarini, G., Stella, L., Campana, S., Belloni, T., Tagliaferri, G., Blustin, A.J., Sakamoto, T., Hurley, K., Zane, S., Moretti, A., Palmer, D., Guidorzi, C., Burrows, D.N., Gehrels, N., Krimm, H.A.: A Swift Gaze into the 2006 March 29 Burst Forest of SGR 1900+14. Astrophys. J. 685, 1114–1128 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Jones, P.B.: Nature of fault planes in solid neutron star matter. Astrophys. J. 595, 342–345 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kaspi, V.M.: Grand unification of neutron stars. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 107, 7147–7152 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kaspi, V.M., Beloborodov, A.: Magnetars. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astroph. 55, 261–301 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kaspi, V.M., Gavriil, F.P.: A second glitch from the “Anomalous” X-Ray Pulsar 1RXS J170849.0–4000910. Astrophys. J. Lett. 596, L71–L74 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kaspi, V.M., McLaughlin, M.A.: Chandra X-ray detection of the high magnetic field radio pulsar PSR J1718–3718. Astrophys. J. Lett. 618, L41–L44 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kaspi, V.M., Lackey, J.R., Chakrabarty, D.: A glitch in an anomalous X-ray pulsar. Astrophys. J. Lett. 537, L31–L34 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kaspi, V.M., Gavriil, F.P., Woods, P.M., Jensen, J.B., Roberts, M.S.E., Chakrabarty, D.: A major soft gamma repeater-like outburst and rotation glitch in the no-longer-so-anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586. Astrophys. J. Lett. 588, L93–L96 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kojima, Y., Kisaka, S.: Magnetic field decay with Hall drift in neutron star crusts. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 421, 2722–2730 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Komissarov, S.S., Barkov, M., Lyutikov, M.: Tearing instability in relativistic magnetically dominated plasmas. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 374, 415–426 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kouveliotou, C., Dieters, S., Strohmayer, T., van Paradijs, J., Fishman, G.J., Meegan, C.A., Hurley, K., Kommers, J., Smith, I., Frail, D., Murakami, T.: An X-ray pulsar with a superstrong magnetic field in the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1806–20. Nature 393, 235–237 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lander, S.K.: Magnetar field evolution and crustal plasticity. Astrophys. J. Lett. 824, L21 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Lander, S.K., Andersson, N., Antonopoulou, D., Watts, A.L.: Magnetically driven crustquakes in neutron stars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 449, 2047–2058 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Lasky, P.D., Zink, B., Kokkotas, K.D., Glampedakis, K.: Hydromagnetic instabilities in relativistic neutron stars. Astrophys. J. Lett. 735, L20 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Lenters, G.T., Woods, P.M., Goupell, J.E., Kouveliotou, C., Göğüş, E., Hurley, K., Frederiks, D., Golenetskii, S., Swank, J.: An extended burst tail from SGR 1900+14 with a thermal X-ray spectrum. Astrophys. J. 587, 761–770 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Levin, Y.: On the theory of magnetar QPOs. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 377, 159–167 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Levin, Y., Lyutikov, M.: On the dynamics of mechanical failures in magnetized neutron star crusts. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 427, 1574–1579 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Levin, L., Bailes, M., Bates, S., Bhat, N.D.R., Burgay, M., Burke-Spolaor, S., D’Amico, N., Johnston, S., Keith, M., Kramer, M., Milia, S., Possenti, A., Rea, N., Stappers, B., van Straten, W.: A radio-loud magnetar in X-ray quiescence. Astrophys. J. Lett. 721, L33–L37 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Li, X., Beloborodov, A.M.: Plastic damping of Alfvén waves in magnetar flares and delayed afterglow emission. Astrophys. J. 815, 25 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Li, X., Levin, Y., Beloborodov, A.M.: Magnetar outbursts from avalanches of Hall Waves and crustal failures. Astrophys. J. 833, 189 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lynden-Bell, D., Boily, C.: Self-similar solutions up to flashpoint in highly wound magnetostatics. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 267, 146 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lynden-Bell, D., Moffatt, H.K.: Flashpoint. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 452, 902–909 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lyutikov, M.: Explosive reconnection in magnetars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 346, 540–554 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Majid, W.A., Pearlman, A.B., Dobreva, T., Horiuchi, S., Kocz, J., Lippuner, J., Prince, T.A.: Post-outburst radio observations of the high magnetic field pulsar PSR J1119–6127. Astrophys. J. Lett. 834, L2 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Manchester, R.N., Hobbs, G.B., Teoh, A., Hobbs, M.: The Australia telescope national facility pulsar catalogue. Astron. J. 129, 1993–2006 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mandea, M., Balasis, G.: FAST TRACK PAPER: The SGR 1806–20 magnetar signature on the Earth’s magnetic field. Geophys. J. Int. 167, 586–591 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Marchant, P., Reisenegger, A., Alejandro Valdivia, J., Hoyos, J.H.: Stability of hall equilibria in neutron star crusts. Astrophys. J. 796, 94 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Marsden, D., White, N.E.: Correlations between spectral properties and spin-down rate in soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars. Astrophys. J. Lett. 551, L155–L158 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Martin, J., Rea, N., Torres, D.F., Papitto, A.: Comparing supernova remnants around strongly magnetized and canonical pulsars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 444, 2910–2924 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Mastrano, A., Suvorov, A.G., Melatos, A.: Interpreting the AXP 1E 2259+586 antiglitch as a change in internal magnetization. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 453, 522–530 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mazets, E.P., Golentskii, S.V., Ilinskii, V.N., Aptekar, R.L., Guryan, I.A.: Observations of a flaring X-ray pulsar in Dorado. Nature 282, 587–589 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mereghetti, S., Stella, L.: The very low mass X-ray binary pulsars: a new class of sources? Astrophys. J. Lett. 442, L17–L20 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Mereghetti, S., Kuiper, L., Tiengo, A., Hessels, J., Hermsen, W., Stovall, K., Possenti, A., Rankin, J., Esposito, P., Turolla, R., Mitra, D., Wright, G., Stappers, B., Horneffer, A., Oslowski, S., Serylak, M., Grießmeier, J.-M.: A deep campaign to characterize the synchronous radio/X-ray mode switching of PSR B0943+10. Astrophys. J. 831, 21 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Mösta, P., Ott, C.D., Radice, D., Roberts, L.F., Schnetter, E., and Haas, R.: A large-scale dynamo and magnetoturbulence in rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae. Nature 528, 376–379 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Muno, M.P., Clark, J.S., Crowther, P.A., Dougherty, S.M., de Grijs, R., Law, C., McMillan, S.L.W., Morris, M.R., Negueruela, I., Pooley, D., Portegies Zwart, S., Yusef-Zadeh, F.: A neutron star with a massive progenitor in Westerlund 1. Astrophys. J. Lett. 636, L41–L44 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Olausen, S.A., Kaspi, V.M.: The McGill magnetar catalog. {Astrophys. J. Supp. Ser. 212, 6 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Olausen, S.A., Zhu, W.W., Vogel, J.K., Kaspi, V.M., Lyne, A.G., Espinoza, C.M., Stappers, B.W., Manchester, R.N., McLaughlin, M.A.: X-Ray observations of high-B radio pulsars. Astrophys. J. 764, 1 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Pacini, F.: Energy emission from a neutron star. Nature 216, 567–568 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Paczynski, B.: GB 790305 as a very strongly magnetized neutron star. Acta Astron. 42, 145–153 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  152. Palmer, D.M., Barthelmy, S., Gehrels, N., Kippen, R.M., Cayton, T., Kouveliotou, C., Eichler, D., Wijers, R.A.M.J., Woods, P.M., Granot, J., Lyubarsky, Y.E., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., Barbier, L., Chester, M., Cummings, J., Fenimore, E.E., Finger, M.H., Gaensler, B.M., Hullinger, D., Krimm, H., Markwardt, C.B., Nousek, J.A., Parsons, A., Patel, S., Sakamoto, T., Sato, G., Suzuki, M., Tueller, J.: A giant γ-ray flare from the magnetar SGR 1806–20. Nature 434, 1107–1109 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Parfrey, K., Beloborodov, A.M., Hui, L.: Twisting, reconnecting magnetospheres and magnetar spindown. Astrophys. J. Lett. 754, L12 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Parfrey, K., Beloborodov, A.M., Hui, L.: Dynamics of strongly twisted relativistic magnetospheres. Astrophys. J. 774, 92 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Passamonti, A., Lander, S.K.: Stratification, superfluidity and magnetar QPOs. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 429, 767–774 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Passamonti, A., Akgün, T., Pons, J.A., Miralles, J.A.: The relevance of ambipolar diffusion for neutron star evolution. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 465, 3416–3428 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Perna, R., Pons, J.A.: A unified model of the magnetar and radio pulsar bursting phenomenology. Astrophys. J. Lett. 727, L51 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Pintore, F., Mereghetti, S., Tiengo, A., Vianello, G., Costantini, E., Esposito, P.: The effect of X-ray dust scattering on a bright burst from the magnetar 1E 1547.0–5408. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 467, 3467–3474 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Pons, J.A., Geppert, U.: Magnetic field dissipation in neutron star crusts: from magnetars to isolated neutron stars. Astron. Astrophys. 470, 303–315 (2007)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Pons, J.A., Geppert, U.: Confirmation of the occurrence of the Hall instability in the non-linear regime. Astron. Astrophys. 513, L12 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Pons, J.A., Perna, R.: Magnetars versus high magnetic field pulsars: a theoretical interpretation of the apparent dichotomy. Astrophys. J. 741, 123 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Pons, J.A., Miralles, J.A., Geppert, U.: Magneto-thermal evolution of neutron stars. Astron. Astrophys. 496, 207–216 (2009)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Popov, S.B., Pons, J.A., Miralles, J.A., Boldin, P.A., Posselt, B.: Population synthesis studies of isolated neutron stars with magnetic field decay. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 401, 2675–2686 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Price, D.J., Rosswog, S.: Producing ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron star mergers. Science 312, 719–722 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Priest, E.R., Hood, A.W., Anzer, U.: A twisted flux-tube model for solar prominences. I - General properties. Astrophys. J. 344, 1010–1025 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rea, N., Esposito, P.: Magnetar outbursts: an observational review. In: Torres, D.F., Rea, N. (eds.) High-energy emission from pulsars and their systems. In: Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings, pp. 247–273. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rea, N., Esposito, P., Turolla, R., Israel, G.L., Zane, S., Stella, L., Mereghetti, S., Tiengo, A., Götz, D., Göğüş, E., Kouveliotou, C.: A low-magnetic-field soft gamma repeater. Science 330, 944 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Rea, N., Israel, G.L., Esposito, P., Pons, J.A., Camero-Arranz, A., Mignani, R.P., Turolla, R., Zane, S., Burgay, M., Possenti, A., Campana, S., Enoto, T., Gehrels, N., Göǧüş, E., Götz, D., Kouveliotou, C., Makishima, K., Mereghetti, S., Oates, S.R., Palmer, D.M., Perna, R., Stella, L., Tiengo, A.: A new low magnetic field magnetar: the 2011 outburst of swift J1822.3–1606. Astrophys. J. 754, 27 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Rea, N., Esposito, P., Pons, J.A., Turolla, R., Torres, D.F., Israel, G.L., Possenti, A., Burgay, M., Viganò, D., Papitto, A., Perna, R., Stella, L., Ponti, G., Baganoff, F.K., Haggard, D., Camero-Arranz, A., Zane, S., Minter, A., Mereghetti, S., Tiengo, A., Schödel, R., Feroci, M., Mignani, R., Götz, D.: A strongly magnetized pulsar within the grasp of the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole. Astrophys. J. Lett. 775, L34 (2013a)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Rea, N., Israel, G.L., Pons, J.A., Turolla, R., Viganò, D., Zane, S., Esposito, P., Perna, R., Papitto, A., Terreran, G., Tiengo, A., Salvetti, D., Girart, J.M., Palau, A., Possenti, A., Burgay, M., Göğüş, E., Caliandro, G.A., Kouveliotou, C., Götz, D., Mignani, R.P., Ratti, E., Stella, L.: The outburst decay of the low magnetic field magnetar SGR 0418+5729. Astrophys. J. 770, 65 (2013b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rea, N., Viganò, D., Israel, G.L., Pons, J.A., Torres, D.F.: 3XMM J185246.6+003317: Another low magnetic field magnetar. Astrophys. J. Lett. 781, L17 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Rea, N., Borghese, A., Esposito, P., Coti Zelati, F., Bachetti, M., Israel, G.L., De Luca, A.: Magnetar-like activity from the central compact object in the SNR RCW103. Astrophys. J. Lett. 828, L13 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Reisenegger, A., Benguria, R., Prieto, J.P., Araya, P.A., Lai, D.: Hall drift of axisymmetric magnetic fields in solid neutron-star matter. Astron. Astrophys. 472, 233–240 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Rheinhardt, M., Geppert, U.: Hall-drift induced magnetic field instability in neutron stars. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(10), 101103 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rheinhardt, M., Konenkov, D., Geppert, U.: The occurrence of the Hall instability in crusts of isolated neutron stars. Astron. Astrophys. 420, 631–645 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Rodríguez Castillo, G.A., Israel, G.L., Tiengo, A., Salvetti, D., Turolla, R., Zane, S., Rea, N., Esposito, P., Mereghetti, S., Perna, R., Stella, L., Pons, J.A., Campana, S., Götz, D., Motta, S.: The outburst decay of the low magnetic field magnetar SWIFT J1822.3–1606: phase-resolved analysis and evidence for a variable cyclotron feature. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 456, 4145–4155 (2016)Google Scholar
  177. Rosswog, S., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., Davies, M.B. High-resolution calculations of merging neutron stars - III. Gamma-ray bursts. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 345, 1077–1090 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Şaşmaz Muş, S., Aydın, B., Göğüş, E.: A glitch and an anti-glitch in the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1841–045. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 440, 2916–2921 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Scholz, P., Ng, C.-Y., Livingstone, M.A., Kaspi, V.M., Cumming, A., and Archibald, R.F.: Post-outburst X-ray flux and timing evolution of swift J1822.3–1606. Astrophys. J. 761, 66 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Scholz, P., Kaspi, V.M., Cumming, A.: The long-term post-outburst spin down and flux relaxation of magnetar swift J1822.3–1606. Astrophys. J. 786, 62 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Shalybkov, D.A., Urpin, V.A.: Ambipolar diffusion and anisotropy of resistivity in neutron star cores. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 273, 643–648 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Spruit, H.C.: Origin of neutron star magnetic fields. In: Bassa, C., Wang, Z., Cumming, A., Kaspi, V.M. (eds.) 40 Years of Pulsars: Millisecond Pulsars, Magnetars and More. American Institute of Physics Conference Series, vol. 983, pp. 391–398. American Institute of Physics, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  183. Steiner, A.W., Watts, A.L.: Constraints on neutron star crusts from oscillations in giant flares. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 181101 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Tauris, T.M., Kaspi, V.M., Breton, R.P., Deller, A.T., Keane, E.F., Kramer, M., Lorimer, D.R., McLaughlin, M.A., Possenti, A., Ray, P.S., Stappers, B.W., Weltevrede, P.: Understanding the neutron star population with the SKA. In: Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array (AASKA14). Proceedings of Science, vol. 215, p. 39 (Trieste: SISSA) (2015)Google Scholar
  185. Thompson, C., Duncan, R.C.: The soft gamma repeaters as very strongly magnetized neutron stars - I. Radiative mechanism for outbursts. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 275, 255–300 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Thompson, C., Duncan, R.C.: The Giant Flare of 1998 August 27 from SGR 1900+14. II. Radiative mechanism and physical constraints on the source. Astrophys. J. 561, 980–1005 (2001)Google Scholar
  187. Thompson, C., Lyutikov, M., Kulkarni, S.R.: Electrodynamics of magnetars: implications for the persistent X-ray emission and spin-down of the soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars. Astrophys. J. 574, 332–355 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Thompson, C., Yang, H., Ortiz, N.: Global crustal dynamics of magnetars in relation to their bright X-ray outbursts. Astrophys. J. 841, 54 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tiengo, A., Esposito, P., Mereghetti, S.: XMM-Newton observations of CXOU J010043.1–721134: the first deep look at the soft X-ray emission of a magnetar. Astrophys. J. Lett. 680, L133–L136 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Tiengo, A., Esposito, P., Mereghetti, S., Turolla, R., Nobili, L., Gastaldello, F., Götz, D., Israel, G.L., Rea, N., Stella, L., Zane, S., Bignami, G.F.: A variable absorption feature in the X-ray spectrum of a magnetar. Nature 500, 312–314 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tsang, D., Gourgouliatos, K.N.: Timing noise in pulsars and magnetars and the magnetospheric moment of inertia. Astrophys. J. Lett. 773, L17 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Turolla, R.: Isolated neutron stars: the challenge of simplicity. In: Becker, W. (ed.) Neutron Stars and Pulsars. Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings, vol. 357, pp. 141–163. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Turolla, R., Esposito, P.: Low-magnetic magnetars. Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 22, 1330024–163 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Turolla, R., Zane, S., Pons, J.A., Esposito, P., Rea, N.: Is SGR 0418+5729 indeed a waning magnetar? Astrophys. J. 740, 105 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Turolla, R., Zane, S., Watts, A.L.: Magnetars: the physics behind observations. A review. Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(11), 116901 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Urpin, V.A., Yakovlev, D.G.: Thermogalvanomagnetic effects in white dwarfs and neutron stars. Sov. Astron. 24, 425 (1980)ADSGoogle Scholar
  197. Urpin, V.A., Levshakov, S.A., Iakovlev, D.G.: Generation of neutron star magnetic fields by thermomagnetic effects. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 219, 703–717 (1986)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Uzdensky, D.A.: Shear-driven field-line opening and the loss of a force-free magnetostatic equilibrium. Astrophys. J. 574, 1011–1020 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Vainshtein, S.I., Chitre, S.M., Olinto, A.V.: Rapid dissipation of magnetic fields due to the Hall current. Phys. Rev. E. 61, 4422–4430 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. van der Horst, A.J., Kouveliotou, C., Gorgone, N.M., Kaneko, Y., Baring, M.G., Guiriec, S., Göǧüş, E., Granot, J., Watts, A.L., Lin, L., Bhat, P.N., Bissaldi, E., Chaplin, V.L., Finger, M.H., Gehrels, N., Gibby, M.H., Giles, M.M., Goldstein, A., Gruber, D., Harding, A.K., Kaper, L., von Kienlin, A., van der Klis, M., McBreen, S., Mcenery, J., Meegan, C.A., Paciesas, W.S., Pe’er, A., Preece, R.D., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., Rau, A., Wachter, S., Wilson-Hodge, C., Woods, P.M., Wijers, R.A.M.J.: SGR J1550–5418 bursts detected with the fermi gamma-ray burst monitor during its most prolific activity. Astrophys. J. 749, 122 (2012)Google Scholar
  201. van Hoven, M., Levin, Y.: Magnetar oscillations - I. Strongly coupled dynamics of the crust and the core. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 410, 1036–1051 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Vietri, M., Stella, L., Israel, G.L.: SGR 1806–20: evidence for a superstrong magnetic field from quasi-periodic oscillations. Astrophys. J. 661, 1089–1093 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Viganò, D., Pons, J.A.: Central compact objects and the hidden magnetic field scenario. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 425, 2487–2492 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Viganò, D., Rea, N., Pons, J.A., Perna, R., Aguilera, D.N., Miralles, J.A.: Unifying the observational diversity of isolated neutron stars via magneto-thermal evolution models. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 434, 123–141 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Vink, J., Kuiper, L.: Supernova remnant energetics and magnetars: no evidence in favour of millisecond proto-neutron stars. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 370, L14–L18 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wareing, C.J., Hollerbach, R.: Forward and inverse cascades in decaying two-dimensional electron magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Phys. Plasmas 16(4), 042307 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wareing, C.J., Hollerbach, R.: Cascades in decaying three-dimensional electron magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. J. Plasma Phys. 76, 117–128 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Watts, A.L., Strohmayer, T.E.: High frequency oscillations during magnetar flares. Astrophys. Space Sci. 308, 625–629 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wiebicke, H.-J., Geppert, U.: Amplification of neutron star magnetic fields by thermoelectric effects. III - Growth limits in nonlinear calculations. Astron. Astrophys. 262, 125–130 (1992)Google Scholar
  210. Wood, T.S., Hollerbach, R.: Three dimensional simulation of the magnetic stress in a neutron star crust. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(19), 191101 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Wood, T.S., Hollerbach, R., Lyutikov, M.: Density-shear instability in electron magneto-hydrodynamics. Phys. Plasmas 21(5), 052110 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Yakovlev, D.G., Pethick, C.J.: Neutron star cooling. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astroph. 42, 169–210 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Yakovlev, D.G., Urpin, V.A.: The cooling of neutron stars and the nature of superdense matter. Sov. Astron. Lett. 7, 88 (1981)ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantinos N. Gourgouliatos
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Paolo Esposito
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Applied MathematicsUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.Department of Mathematical SciencesDurham UniversityDurhamUK
  3. 3.Anton Pannekoek Institute for AstronomyUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations