Contemporary Migrations: The Madeiran Portuguese

  • Jaine BeswickEmail author
Part of the Language and Globalization book series (LAGL)


This chapter is one of the most noteworthy of the book. Beswick offers an insightful and detailed, generational analysis of one of the most significant migration trajectories to Jersey in recent times, that of the Madeiran Portuguese, and fundamental to her hypothesis is an examination of how different age groups engage with ideologies of belonging and how their attitudes towards home intersect with self-identification practices and situated language use, with language often a topos around which participants talk about their lives, experiences and attitudes. Her historical contextualisation of the reification of a homogeneous Portuguese national identity highlights the relevance of its main tropes to the Madeiran diaspora and regional identity. Beswick’s subsequent fieldwork discussion reveals rich data about ideologies of group identity and cohesiveness based on shared, social and cultural stereotypes, how they may be articulated both inside and outside the spatial clustering of the Madeiran Quarter and how embeddedness within the Island’s local social networks may be significant. She examines older participants’ transnational lifestyles, aspirations for return, the perceived temporary nature of their island-to-island economic migrations and the thematic role of Portuguese as a sociocultural emblem of diasporic belonging, and her discussion of the tensions such themes inspire in 1.5 and second-generation participants is particularly revealing. Central to her argument are ideologies of legitimacy and authenticity, alternative representations of home and belonging and the situated use of English. Beswick’s final section on third-generation participants examines how they negotiate group borders and uncovers the presence of distinctive, emblematic linguistic repertoires that suggest the emergence of a new, peer group identity.


  1. Abbots, Emma-Jayne. 2015. Approaches to Food and Migration: Rootedness, Being and Belonging. In The Handbook of Food and Anthropology, ed. Jakob Klein and James Watson, 115–132. Bloomsbury: London/New York.Google Scholar
  2. Almeida, João. 2010. Citizens of the World: Migration and Citizenship of the Portuguese in the UK. Portuguese Studies 26 (1): 208–229.Google Scholar
  3. Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  4. Armbruster, Heidi. 2002. Homes in Crisis: Syrian Orthodox Christians in Turkey and Germany. In New Approaches to Migration? Transnational Communities and the Transformation of Home, ed. Nadje Al-Ali and Khalid Koser, 17–33. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Arnaut, Karel, Jan Blommaert, Ben Rampton, and Massimiliano Spotti (eds.). 2015. Language and Superdiversity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Baganha, Maria. 1999. Migrações internacionais de e para Portugal: o que sabemos e para donde vamos? Revista crítica de ciências sociais 52: 229–80.Google Scholar
  7. Baldacchino, Godfrey. 2005. Islands—Objects of Representation. Geografiska Annaler 87B: 247–251.Google Scholar
  8. Baldacchino, Godfrey. 2006. Introduction to New Journal. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal 1 (1): 3–18.Google Scholar
  9. Baldacchino, Godfrey. 2007. Islands as Novelty Sites. Geographical Review 97 (2): 165–174.Google Scholar
  10. Baruch, Yehuda, and Stuart Jenkins. 2007. Swearing at Work and Permissive Leadership Culture. When Anti-Social Becomes Social and Incivility is Acceptable. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 28 (6): 492–507.Google Scholar
  11. Beswick, Jaine. 2007. The Portuguese Diaspora in Jersey. In The Consequences of Mobility: Linguistic and Sociocultural Contact Zones, ed. Bent Preisler, Anne Fabricius, Hartmut Haberland, Susanne Kjaerbeck, and Karen Risager, 93–105. Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University.Google Scholar
  12. Beswick, Jaine. 2013. Ideology and Language: Assumed and Authentic Linguistic Practices of Portuguese Migrants in British Workspaces. In Ideological Conceptualisations of Language: Discourses of Linguistic Diversity. Special Issue Prague Papers on Language, Society and Interaction, ed. Erzsebet Barat, Patrick Studer, and Jiri Nekvapil, 119–144. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  13. Beswick, Jaine. 2014. Borders within Borders: Contexts of Language Use and Local Identity Configuration in Southern Galicia. In Language, Borders and Identity, ed. Carmen Llamas, and Dominic Watt, 105–117. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Beswick, Jaine. Forthcoming. Identity, Speakerhood and Positioning in Jersey Multilingual Spaces. In Exploring Multilingualism in Migrant Contexts. Special Issue of Languages, ed. Jaine Beswick and Darren Paffey. Basel, Switzerland: MPDI.Google Scholar
  15. Beswick, Jaine and Alicia Pozo-Gutiérrez. 2010. Migrant Identities, Sociolinguistic and Socio-Cultural Practices: Spanish and Portuguese Migrations to the South Coast of England. In Portuguese-Speaking Diaspora in Great Britain and Ireland: Special Issue of Portuguese Studies, ed. Jaine Beswick and Mark Dinneen, 26 (1): 41–59.Google Scholar
  16. Birmingham, David. 2013. A Concise History of Portugal, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Block, David. 2016. Class in Language and Identity Research. In The Routledge Handbook of Language and Identity, ed. Siân Preece, 241–254. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Blommaert, Jan. 2005. Discourse: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Blommaert, Jan. 2010. The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blommaert, Jan. 2013. Ethnography, Superdiversity and Linguistic Landscapes. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blunt, Alison, and Robyn Dowling. 2006. Home: Key Ideas in Geography. Oxford: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boersma, Maren. 2019. Filipina Domestic Workers in Hong Kong: Between Permanence and Temporariness in Everyday Life. Current Sociology 67 (2): 273–293.Google Scholar
  23. Boleat, Mark. 2015. Jersey’s Population—A History. St. Helier, Jersey: Société Jersiaise/Seaflower Books.Google Scholar
  24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1992. Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  25. Brettell, Caroline B. 1979. Emigrar para voltar: a Portuguese Ideology of Return Migration. Papers in Anthropology 20 (1): 1–20.Google Scholar
  26. Brickell, Katherine, and Ayona Datta, (eds.). 2011. Translocal Geographies: Spaces, Places, Connections. Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  27. Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage, vol. 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Brubaker, Rogers. 2005. The ‘Diaspora’ Diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies [online] 28 (1): 1–19. Available at: Accessed 02/12/2019.
  29. Busch, Brigitta. 2006. Language and Identity in the Balkans. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10 (1): 123–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cahen, Michel. 2013. ‘Portugal Is in the Sky’: Conceptual Considerations on Communities, Lusitanity, and Lusophony. In Imperial Migrations: Migration, Diasporas and Citizenship, ed. Eric Morier-Genoud and Michel Cahen, 297–315. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Canagarajah, Suresh. 2011. Translanguaging in the Classroom: Emerging Issues for Research and Pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review 2: 1–28.Google Scholar
  32. Cenoz, Jasone, and Durk Gorter (eds.). 2015. Multilingual Education: Between Language Learning and Translanguaging. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Cenoz, Jasone, and Durk Gorter. 2017. Minority Languages and Sustainable Translanguaging: Threat or Opportunity? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 38 (10): 901–912.Google Scholar
  34. Collins, Francis Leo. 2011. Transnational Mobilities and Urban Spatialities: Notes From the Asia-Pacific. Progress in Human Geography 36 (3): 316–335.Google Scholar
  35. Conway, Dennis, and Robert B. Potter. 2016. Return of the Next Generations: Transnational Migration and Development in the 21st Century. In Return Migration of the Next Generations: 21st Century Transnational Mobility, ed. Dennis Conway and Robert B. Potter, 1–18. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Conway, Martin A., Qi Wang, Kazunori Hanyu, and Shamsul Haque. 2005. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Autobiographical Memory: On the Universality and Cultural Variation of the Reminiscence Bump. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36 (6): 739–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Da Costa Holton, Kimberly, and Andrea Klimt (eds.). 2009. Community, Culture, and the Makings of Identity: Portuguese-American Communities Along the Eastern Seaboard. Dartmouth: Center for Portuguese Culture and Society, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.Google Scholar
  38. Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2004a. Blistering Barnacles! What Language Do Multilinguals Swear In? Estudios de Sociolinguistica 5 (1): 83–105.Google Scholar
  39. Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2004b. The Emotional Force of Swearwords and Taboo Words in the Speech of Multilinguals. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 25 (2–3): 204–222.Google Scholar
  40. Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2010a. Christ Fucking shit merde!’ Language Preferences for Swearing Among Maximally Proficient Multilinguals. Sociolinguistic Studies 4 (3): 595–614.Google Scholar
  41. Dewaele, Jean-Marc. 2010b. Emotions in Multiple Languages. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dias, Inês Costa. 2009. Curating Contemporary Art and the Critique to Lusophonie. Arquivos da Memória. Antropologia, Arte e Imagem 5–6: 6–46.Google Scholar
  43. Feldman-Bianco, Bela. 2007. Empire, Postcoloniality and Diasporas: The Portuguese Case. Papers 85: 43–56.Google Scholar
  44. Fenton, Steve. 2003. Ethnicity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  45. Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. 2007. Madeiran Portuguese Migration to Guyana, St Vincent, Antigua and Trinidad: A Comparative Overview. Portuguese Studies Review 14 (2): 63–85.Google Scholar
  46. Festa, M. Charles, Seth Macinko, and Marc L. Miller. 2009. ‘Islandness’ as a Resource: A Look at How Being Small and Isolated Has Found a Place in a Globalizing World. In Proceedings of CMT2009, 6th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, June 23–26, Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa.Google Scholar
  47. Fitzgerald, Patrick, and Brian Lambkin. 2008. Migration in Irish History, 1607–2007. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. García, Ofelia. 2009. Education, Multilingualism and Translanguaging in the 21st Century. In Multilingual Education for Social Justice: Globalising the local, ed. Ajit Mohanty, Minati Panda, Robert Phillipson, and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, 128–145. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
  49. García, Ofelia, and Angel M.Y. Lin. 2016. Translanguaging in Bilingual Education. In Bilingual and Multilingual Education, Encyclopedia of Language and Education, ed. Ofelia García, Angel M.Y. Lin, and Stephen May, 1–14. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  50. García, Ofelia, and Wei Li. 2014. Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. 2009. Code-Switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gawinkowska, Marta, Michał B. Paradowski, and Michał Bilewicz. 2013. Second Language as an Exemptor from Sociocultural Norms: Emotion-Related Language Choice Revisited. PloS one 8 (12): e81225. Online at: Accessed 10/11/19.
  53. Gilroy, Paul. 2004. After Empire: Melancholia or Convivial Culture? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Glaser, Clive. 2010. Portuguese Immigrant History in Twentieth Century South Africa: A Preliminary Overview. African Historical Review 42 (2): 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Glaser, Clive. 2012. White but Illegal: Undocumented Madeiran Immigration to South Africa, 1920s–1970s. Immigrants & Minorities 31 (1): 1–25.Google Scholar
  56. Glaser, Clive. 2013. The Making of a Portuguese Community in South Africa, 1900–1994. In Imperial Migrations: Migration, Diasporas and Citizenship, ed. Eric Morier-Genoud and Michel Cahen, 213–238. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gonçalves, Kellie. 2012. Semiotic Landscapes and Discourses of Place Within a Portuguese-Speaking Neighborhood. InterDISCIPLINARY Journal of Portuguese Diaspora Studies 1: 71–99. Online at: Accessed 21/03/18.
  58. Hall, Stuart. 2003. Cultural Identity and Diaspora. In Theorizing Diaspora, ed. Jana Evans Braziel and Anita Mannur, 233–246. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  59. Hay, Pete. 2006. A Phenomenology of Islands. Island Studies Journal 1 (1): 19–42.Google Scholar
  60. Heller, Monica. 2010. The Commodification of Language. Annual Review of Anthropology 39: 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda, Jaine Beswick, Marián Sloboda, Ivo Vasiljev, Jernej Mirna, and Karl Ille. 2010. Language Use and Employment Opportunities of Economic migrants in Europe: Policy and Practice. In Multilingualism in Contemporary Europe: Challenges for Policy and Practice, ed. P. Stevenson. Special Issue, European Journal of Language Policy (EJLP) 2 (2): 205–228.Google Scholar
  62. Holmes, Alison, and Martin A. Conway. 1999. Generation Identity and the Reminiscence Bump: Memory for Public and Private Events. Journal of Adult Development 6: 21–34.Google Scholar
  63. Holmes, Sam. 2017. Lusondoners: An Account of Portuguese-Speaking-Inflected Superdiversity in a South London School. Unpublished PhD Thesis, London: King’s College.Google Scholar
  64. International Finance Corporation. 2009. Projects and People: a Handbook for Addressing Project-Induced In-Migration. Online at: Last accessed 20/05/18.
  65. International Organisation for Migration (IOM). 2010. Intersessional Workshop on Migration and Transnationalism: Opportunities and Challenges. 9–10 March 2010. Online at: Accessed 30/05/19.
  66. Jarvis, Scott, and Aneta Pavlenko. 2008. Crosslinguistic Influence in Language and Cognition. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Jelen, Brigitte. 2007. Immigrant In/visibility: Portuguese and North Africans in Post-Colonial France. Irvine: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  68. Jørgensen, Normann. 2008. Polylingual Languaging Around and Among Children and Adolescents. International Journal of Multilingualism 5 (3): 161–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Joseph, John. 2016. Historical Perspectives on Language and Identity. In The Routledge Handbook of Language and Identity, ed. Siân Preece, 19–33. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Kenedy, Robert A., Fernando Nunes, and Ana Paula Beja Horta (eds.) 2013. Identity, Civic Engagement and Multiculturalism: Portuguese-Canadian Immigrant Descendants in Canada and Portugal: The Portuguese Studies Review Special Theme Issue, 20, 2.Google Scholar
  71. Kim, Sun Hee Ok, and Donna Starks. 2008. The Role of Emotions in L1 Attrition: The Case of Korean-English Late Bilinguals in New Zealand. International Journal of Bilingualism 12 (4): 303–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Klimt, Andrea. 2000. European Spaces: Portuguese Migrants’ Notions of Home and Belonging. Diaspora, a Journal of Transnational Studies 9 (2): 259–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Klimt, Andrea. 2003. Do National Narratives Matter? Trajectories of the Portuguese in France and Germany. In European Encounters, 1945–2000: Migrants, Migration, and European Societies Since 1945, ed. Rainer Ohlinger, Karen Schöenwälder, and Triadafilos Triadafilopoulos, 255–278. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  74. Klimt, Andrea. 2005. Performing Portugueseness in Germany. Etnográfica IX 1: 103–121.Google Scholar
  75. Klimt, Andrea. 2006. Divergent Trajectories: Identity and Community Among Portuguese in Germany and the United States. Portuguese Studies Review 14 (2): 211–240.Google Scholar
  76. Kostakopoulou, Dora. 2008. The Future Governance of Citizenship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Koven, Michéle. 2007. Selves in Two Languages: Bilinguals’ Verbal Enactments of Identity in French and Portuguese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Koven, Michéle. 2013. Speaking French in Portugal: An Analysis of Contested Models of Emigrant Personhood in Narratives About Return Migration and Language Use. Journal of Sociolinguistics 17 (3): 324–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lantto, Hanna. 2012. Code-Switching, Swearing and Slang: The Colloquial Register of Basque in Greater Bilbao. Journal of Bilingualism 18 (6): 633–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Leal, João. 2014. What’s (Not) in a Parade? Nationhood, Ethnicity and Regionalism in a Diasporic Context. Nations and Nationalism 20 (2): 200–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lemos Martins, Moisés. 2004. Lusotropicalismo e Lusofonia. Equívocos e possibilidades de dois conceitos hiper-identitários. Universidade do Minho, Centro de Estudos de Comunicação e Sociedade, 10th Congresso Brasileiro de Língua Portuguesa: Lusofonia. São Paulo, Brazil, 28 April–1 May 2004. Braga, Universidade do Minho. Online at: Last accessed 05/10/17.
  82. Leutzsch, Andreas. 2014. Portugal: A Future’s Past Between Land and Sea. In European National Identities: Elements, Transitions, Conflicts, ed. Roland Vogt, Wayne Cristaudo, and Andreas Leutzsch, 173–196. London: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  83. Levitt, Penny. 2001. The Transnational Villagers. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  84. Levitt, Penny. 2009. Roots and Routes: Understanding the Lives of the Second Generation Transnationally. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 35 (7): 1225–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lewis, Gwyn, Bryn Jones, and Colin Baker. 2012. Translanguaging: Origins and Development from School to Street and Beyond. Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice 18: 641–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Li, Wei. 2011. Moment Analysis and Translanguaging Space: Discursive Construction of Identities by Multilingual Chinese Youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (5): 1222–1235.Google Scholar
  87. Li, Wei. 2014. Translanguaging Knowledge and Identity in Complementary Classrooms for Multilingual Minority Ethnic Children. Classroom Discourse 5 (2): 158–175.Google Scholar
  88. Li, Wei. 2017. Translanguaging as a Practical Theory of Language. Applied Linguistics 39 (1): 9–30.Google Scholar
  89. Li, Wei, and Hua Zhu. 2013. Translanguaging Identities: Creating Transnational Space Through Flexible Multilingual Practices Amongst Chinese University Students in the UK. Applied Linguistics 34 (5): 516–535.Google Scholar
  90. Lopez-Trigal, Lorenzo. 2001. The Portuguese Community. In Multilingualism in Spain: Sociolinguistic and Psycholinguistic Aspects of Linguistic Minority Groups, ed. Maria Teresa Turrell, 344–354. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  91. MacSwan, Jeff. 2017. A Multilingual Perspective on Translanguaging. American Educational Research Journal 54 (1): 167–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Madureira, Luis. 1995. The Discreet Seductiveness of the Crumbling Empire: Sex, Violence and Colonialism in the Fiction of António Lobo Antunes. Luso-Brazilian Review 32 (1): 17–29.Google Scholar
  93. Mar-Molinero, Vanessa. 2010. Family and Transmission: Collective Memory in Identification Practices of Madeirans on Jersey. In Portuguese-speaking Diaspora in Great Britain and Ireland, ed. Jaine Beswick and Mark Dinneen, Special Issue, Portuguese Studies, 26 (1): 94–110.Google Scholar
  94. Marques, José Carlos, and Pedro Góis. 2013. Portuguese Emigrants and the State: An Ambivalent Relationship. In Emigration, Nations, Policies and Ideologies of Emigrant Engagement, ed. Michael Collyer, 252–276. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  95. Mohammadi, Ariana N. 2020. Swearing in a Second Language: The Role of Emotions and Perceptions. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1–18. Online at: Accessed 12/05/20.
  96. Morier-Genoud, Eric, and Michel Cahen. 2013. Imperial Migrations: Colonial Communities and Diaspora in the Portuguese World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Muysken, Peter. 2000. Bilingual Speech: A Typology of Code-Mixing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Myers-Scotton, Carol. 2017. Code-Switching. In The Handbook of Sociolinguistics, ed. Florian Coulmas, 217–237. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Neto, Félix. 1986. A migracao portuguesa vivida e representada: contribuicao para o estudo dos projectos migratorios. Porto: Secretaria de Estado das Comunidades Portuguesas, Centro de Estudos.Google Scholar
  100. Neto, Félix, José Barros, and Paul G. Schmitz. 2005. Acculturation, Attitudes and Adaptation Among Portuguese Immigrants in Germany: Integration or Separation. Psychology and Developing Societies 17: 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nikitina, Nataliya. 2016. Geoethics: Theory, Principles, Problems, 2nd ed. Online at: Last accessed 21/05/18.
  102. No author. 2014. Report: The Most Qualified Portuguese Migrants Prefer the United Sates. Portuguese-American Journal. See online at: Last accessed 20/05/18.
  103. Noivo, Edite. 2002. Towards a Cartography of Portugueseness: Challenging the Hegemonic Center. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies 11 (2): 255–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Olwig, Karen Fog. 2007. Islands as Places of Being and Belonging. Geographical Review 97 (2): 260–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Osborne, Dana. 2020. Codeswitching Practices from “Other Tongues” to the “Mother Tongue” in the Provincial Philippine Classroom. Linguistics and Education 55 (100780): 1–10.Google Scholar
  106. Otheguy, Ricardo, Ofelia García, and Wallis Reid. 2015. Clarifying Translangauging and Deconstructing Named Languages: A Perspective from Linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review 6 (3): 281–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pavlenko, Aneta. 2008. Emotion and Emotion-Laden Words in the Bilingual Lexicon. Keynote Article. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 11 (2): 147–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pavlenko, Aneta. 2012. Multilingualism and Emotions. In The Routledge Handbook of Multilingualism, ed. Marilyn Martin-Jones, Adrian Blackledge, and Angela Creese, 454–469. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  109. Peixoto, João, Isabel Tiago de Oliveira, Joana Azevedo, José Carlos Marques, Pedro Góis, Jorge Malheiros, and Paulo Miguel Madeira. (eds.). 2016. Regresso ao futuro: a nova emigração e a sociedade portuguesa. Lisboa: Gradiva.Google Scholar
  110. Pereira, Claudia, and Joana Azevedo. (eds.). 2019. New and Old Routes of Portuguese Emigration. Uncertain Futures at the Periphery of Europe. IMISCOE Research Series. Springer Open Access. Online at: Last accessed 18/12/19.
  111. Peth, Simon Alexander, Harald Sterly, and Patrick Sakdapolrak. 2018. Between the Village and the Global City: The Production and Decay of Translocal Spaces of Thai Migrant Workers in Singapore. Mobilities 13 (4): 455–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pimenta, José R., João Sarmento, and Ana F. de Azevedo. 2011. ‘Lusotropicalism: Tropical Geography Under Dictatorship’, 1926–1974. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 32: 220–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Poplack, Shana. 1980. Sometimes I’ll Start a Sentence in Spanish Y TERMINO EN ESPAÑOL: Toward a Typology of Code-Switching. Linguistics 18 (7–8): 581–618.Google Scholar
  114. De Pina-Cabral, João. 1989. Sociocultural Differentiation and Regional Identity in Portugal. In Essays on the Nature of Identity in Portugal and Spain, ed. Richard Herr and John H.R. Polt, 3–18. Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar
  115. Rampton, Ben, Janet Maybin, and Celia Roberts. 2015. Theory and Method in Linguistic Ethnography. In Linguistic Ethnography: Interdisciplinary Explorations, ed. Julia Snell, Sara Shaw, and Fiona Copland, 14–50. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ribeiro, Margarida C. 2002. Empire, Colonial Wars and Post-Colonialism in the Portuguese Contemporary Imagination. Portuguese Studies 18: 132–214.Google Scholar
  117. Rubin, David C., Tamara A. Rahhal, and Leonard W. Poon. 1998. Things Learned in Early Adulthood Are Remembered Best. Memory & Cognition 26: 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Safran, William. 1991. Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return. Diaspora 1 (1): 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Santarita, P., and Marilyne Martin-Jones. 1991. The Portuguese Speech Community. In Multilingualism in the British Isles: The Older Mother Tongues and Europe, ed. Safder Alladina and Viv Edwards, 228–240. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  120. Sardinha, João. 2011 “Returning” Second-Generation Portuguese-Canadians and Portuguese-French: Motivations and Senses of Belonging. Journal of Mediterranean Studies 20 (2): 231–254. Project MUSE, Scholar
  121. Sidaway, James D., and Marcus Power. 2005. “The Tears of Portugal”: Empire, Identity, “Race”, and Destiny in Portuguese Geopolitical Narratives. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 23: 527–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Da Silva, Emanuel. 2015. Sociolinguistic Tensions in the Portuguese/Portuguese-Speaking Community of Toronto, Canada. In Global Portuguese: Linguistic Ideologies in Late Modernity, ed. Luiz Paolo Moita-Lopes, 124–143. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  123. States of Jersey Census. 2011. See online at: Last accessed 19/11/19.
  124. States of Jersey Statistics Unit. 2017. Measuring Jersey’s Economy: GVA and GDP 2016. See online at: Last accessed 22/05/18.
  125. Stock, Femke. 2010. Home and Memory. In Diasporas: Concepts, Intersections, Identities, ed. Kim Knott and Sean McLoughlin, 24–28. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  126. Syvret, Marguerite. 2011. Balleine’s History of Jersey. Stroud: The History Press.Google Scholar
  127. Teixeira, Carlos, and Victor da Pereira Rosa (eds.). 2009. The Portuguese in Canada: Diasporic Challenges and Adjustment. Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  128. Vale de Almeida, Miguel. 2008. Portugal’s Colonial Complex: From Colonial Lusotropicalism to Postcolonial Lusophony. Queen’s Postcolonial Research Forum Queen’s University, Belfast, 28 April 2008, online at: Accessed 24/04/18.
  129. Van Leeuwen, Theo. 1996. The Representation of Social Actors. In Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis, ed. Carmen Rosa and Carmen Rosa Caldas-Coulthard, 32–70. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  130. Vanspauwen, Bart P. 2013. Cultural Struggles in the Lusofonia Arena: Portuguese-Speaking Migrant Musicians in Lisbon. Afrika Focus 26 (1): 67–88.Google Scholar
  131. Vertovec, Steven. 2006. The Emergence of Super-Diversity in Britain. Centre on Migration, Policy and Society Working Paper No. 25. University of Oxford. Online at: Last accessed 21/05/18.
  132. Vertovec, Steven. 2007. Super-Diversity and Its Implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies 30 (6): 1024–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Watson, James, and Jakob Klein. 2015. Introduction: Anthropology, Food and Modern Life. In The Handbook of Food and Anthropology, ed. Jakob Klein and James Watson, 1–30. Bloomsbury: London/New York.Google Scholar
  134. Weale, David. 1992. Them Times. Charlottetown, PEI: University of Prince Edward Island, Institute of Island Studies.Google Scholar
  135. Williams, Glyn. 2005. Multimedia, Minority Languages and the New Economy. Noves SL. Revista De Sociolingüística, Winter 2005. See online at: Last accessed 24/10/19.
  136. Zentella, Ana Celia. 2013. Bilinguals and Borders! California’s Transfronterizos and Competing Constructions of Bilingualism. International Journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest 32 (2): 17–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Modern Languages and LinguisticsUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations