Over and above self-dissociation (which is not fully accounted for), the angular structure of H2O imparts a partial ionic character, to which hydrogen-bonding is attributed, and without which there would be no liquid water to effect ion hydration nor self-dissociation.
- 1.M. Mulder, Basic Principles of Membrane Technology, 2nd edn. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1996)Google Scholar
- 2.H. Strathmann, Membrane Separations Technology, Principles and Applications, ed. by R.D. Noble, S.A. Stern (Elsevier, Amsterdam etc., 1995)Google Scholar
- 3.H. Strathmann, Ion Exchange Membrane Separations Processes (Elsevier, Amsterdam etc., 2004)Google Scholar