Advertisement

The Thermodynamic Connection

  • Karl W. BöddekerEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

A mixture, in dictionary parlance, is a commingling of two or more substances in varying proportion in which the components retain their individual chemical identity. Solutions, for the purpose of fluid separations, are homogeneous mixtures of solid, liquid or gaseous solutes in a liquid solvent.

Bibliography

References

  1. 1.
    S.R. Sherman, D.B. Trampe, D.M. Bush, M. Schiller, C.A. Eckert, A.J. Dallas, J. Li, P.W. Carr, Compilation and correlation of limiting activity coefficients of nonelectrolytes in water. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 35, 1044–1058 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.A. Wesselingh, R. Krishna, Mass Transfer (Ellis Horwood, New York etc., 1990)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Vallieres, D. Winkelmann, D. Roizard, E. Favre, P. Scharfer, M. Kind, On Schroeder’s paradox. J. Membrane Sci. 278, 357–364 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.T. Chern, W.J. Koros, H.B. Hopfenberg, V.T. Stannett, Material Science of Synthetic Membranes, in ACS Symposium Series 269, ed. by D. Lloyd, Chap. 3 (1985)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.D. Ferry, Ultrafilter membranes and ultrafiltration. Chem. Rev. 18, 373–455 (1936)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Loeb, S. Sourirajan, Sea water demineralization by means of an osmotic membrane, in Saline Water Conversion, Advances in Chemistry Series 38, ed. by R.F. Gould, vol. 117 (1962) (See also Chap. 1, Ref. [14])Google Scholar

Background

  1. 7.
    A.S. Michaels, H.J. Bixler, Membrane permeation: Theory and practice, in Progress in Separation and Purification, vol. 1, ed. by E.S. Perry (Wiley, New York, 1968), pp. 143–186Google Scholar
  2. 8.
    P. Meares (ed.), Membrane Separation Processes (Elsevier, Amsterdam etc., 1976)Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    E.L. Cussler, Diffusion, in Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997)Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    B.E. Poling, J.M. Prausnitz, J.P. O’Connell, The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 5th edn. (McGraw-Hill, New York etc., 2001)Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    R.B. Bird, W.E. Stewart, E.N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, 2nd edn. (Wiley, New York etc., 2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EmdenGermany
  2. 2.Technische Universität Hamburg (TUHH)HamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations