Driving in Almaty: Ironic Perspectives on Domestic Anarchical Society
Frigerio proposes an ironic analysis of the relationships between drivers in Almaty as a tool for reframing political theory starting from Kazakhstan. Focusing on contractarianism, exceptionalism, and resilience, the chapter shows how the interactions between the mecha-citizens of this state of (non)nature seem to be characterized by evolutionary norms generated by dynamic power relationships and local irrationalities. Finally, arguing against the risks of a privatizing authoritarianism generated by the frameworks of an exceptionalist neoliberalism based on resilience and a perfectionist governance based on technologies, Frigerio concludes suggesting a political theory defined by the irony of domestic anarchical society.
- Arendt, H. (1958). The Human Condition. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
- Arendt, H. (1963). On Revolution. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
- Arendt, H.  (1993). Between Past and Future. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Beavers, A. F. (2009). Between Angels and Animals: The Question of Robot Ethics, or Is Kantian Moral Agency Desirable? Available at http://faculty.evansville.edu/tb2/PDFs/Robot%20Ethics%20-%20APPE.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
- Butler, J. (2004). Indefinite Detention. In Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence (pp. 50–100). London/New York: Verso.Google Scholar
- Connolly, W. E. (2011). A World of Becoming. Durham/London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Cuninghame, P. G. (2007). “A Laughter That Will Bury You All”: Irony as Protest and Language as Struggle in the Italian 1977 Movement. International Review of Social History, 52(S15), 153–168.Google Scholar
- de Beauvoir, S.  (2011). The Second Sex. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
- Dumm, T. (1999). A Politics of the Ordinary. New York/London: New York University Press.Google Scholar
- Hampton, J. (1986). Hobbes and the Social Contract Tradition. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Harada, T. M. (2014). Driving Cultures. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Department of Geography and Sustainable Communities, University of Wollongong. Available at http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/4058. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
- Hardt, M., & Negri, A. (2001). Empire. Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Hardt, M., & Negri, A. (2004). Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Hartman, R. (2012). Driving in Almaty. Available at http://wyldeast.blogspot.com/2012/11/driving-in-almaty.html. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
- Hobbes, T.  (1962). Leviathan: Or the Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesial and Civil. New York: Collier Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Kant, I.  (2009). Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Kantorowicz, E. H.  (2016). The King’s Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology. Princeton/Woodstock: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Kfzteile24. (2017). Best and Worst Cities to Drive 2017. Available at https://www.kfzteile24.de/best-and-worst-cities-to-drive-usd. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
- Lindsay, A. (2017). Hannah Arendt, the Problem of the Absolute and the Paradox of Constitutionalism or: How to Restart Time Within an Inexorable Time Continuum. Philosophy and Social Criticism, 20(10), 1–23.Google Scholar
- Locke, J.  (1963). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Löwith, K. (1995). The Occasional Decisionism of Carl Schmitt. In Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism (pp. 137–158). New York/Chichester: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- OSAC (2015). Kazakhstan 2015: Crime and Safety Report. Available at https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=17054. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
- Pasquali, F. (2012). Feasibility and Desirability. In A. Besussi (Ed.), A Companion to Political Philosophy: Methods, Tools, Topics (pp. 41–52). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. (2015). The Deadliest Roads. Available at http://www.rferl.org/a/the-deadliest-roads/28135313.html. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
- Roy, O. (2007). Secularism Confronts Islam. New York/Chichester: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Schelling, T. (1980). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Schmitt, C.  (1996). The Concept of the Political. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Schmitt, C.  (2005). Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Soron, D. (2009). Driven to Drive: Cars and the Problem of ‘Compulsory Consumption’. In J. Conley & A. T. McLaren (Eds.), Car Troubles: Critical Studies of Automobility and Auto-Mobility (pp. 181–196). Farnham/Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Tengrinews. (2015). Bolee 2.5 tysyachi chelovek pogibli v DTP v Kazakhstane v 2014 godu (More Than 2.5 Thousand People Died in Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan in 2014). Available at http://tengrinews.kz/kazakhstan_news/25-tyisyachi-pogibli-dtp-kazahstane-2014-godu-269051/. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
- Tengrinews. (2017). Otets almatinki obyasnil slova docheri o “kuplennyh” pravah (The Father of Almaty Girl Explained the Words of His Daughter About the “Bought” Driving License). Available at https://tengrinews.kz/events/otets-almatinki-obyyasnil-slova-docheri-o-kuplennyih-pravah-313999/. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
- The Telegraph. (2017). Mapped: The World’s Most Dangerous Places to Drive, 2017. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/maps-and-graphics/most-dangerous-countries-to-drive/. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
- Thucydides. [410 BC] (1974). History of the Peloponnesian War. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Yvision. (2014). Skolko mashin ezdyat po ulitsam Almaty? (How Many Cars Are Running on the Streets of Almaty?). Available at https://yvision.kz/post/432098. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.