Perceptions and Practice of Human Security in Malaysia
This chapter discusses the perceptions and understanding of human security in Malaysia. Putting a premium on the role of civil society, the authors examine threats to human security and the policies of the Malaysian government in areas such as lingering poverty, minority issues, human trafficking, suppression of the freedom of expression, and the plight of the Rohingya refugees. While civil society actors place greater emphasis on the discourse of human rights rather than human security, the government focuses more on the notion of non-traditional security and considers it as part of its comprehensive security. The authors recommend that the government should take the lead in mainstreaming human security by prioritizing policies that empower communities and further opening up spaces for civil society movements through genuine cooperation in order to better address peoples’ insecurities.
- Acharya, Amitav. 1999. Culture, Security, Multilateralism: The ‘ASEAN Way’ and Regional Order. In Culture and Security: Multilateralism, Arms Control and Security Building, ed. Keith R. Krause, 55–84. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
- Alegria, Kyra. 2015. Civil Society Plays Major Role in Defending Human Rights in Malaysia. The Rakyat Post, December 10. http://www.therakyatpost.com/news/2015/12/10/civil-society-plays-major-role-in-defending-human-rights-in-malaysia/.
- Anand, Ram. 2016. Thousands Attend Anti-GST Protest, Police Lock Down Dataran Merdeka. Malay Mail Online, April 2. http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/police-lock-down-dataran-merdeka-as-anti-gst-protest-starts-to-form.
- Bernama. 2016. National Harmony Bill in Final Drafting Stage, Says Minister. Malaysiakini, January 11. https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/326377.
- Case, William. 2003. Thorns in the Flesh: Civil Society as Democratizing Agent in Malaysia. In Civil Society in Asia, ed. David C. Schak and Wayne Hudson, 40–58. Hampshire: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Cheeppensook, Kasira. 2007. The ASEAN Way on Human Security. Paper presented at the International Development Studies Conference on Mainstreaming Human Security: The Asian Contribution, Bangkok, Thailand, October 4–5, 2007.Google Scholar
- Chong, Terrence. 2006. The Emerging Politics of Islam Hadhari. In Malaysia: Recent Trends and Challenges, ed. Saw Swee-Hock and K. Kesavapany, 26–46. Singapore: ISEAS.Google Scholar
- Collins, Alan. 2005. Security and Southeast Asia: Domestic, Regional, and Global Issues. New Delhi: Viva Books Private Limited.Google Scholar
- Gomez, Terence. 2014. Don’t Curb Intellectual Discourse. Kinibiz Online, September 8. http://www.kinibiz.com/story/opinions/106573/don%E2%80%99t-curb-intellectual-discourse.html.
- Haniff, Hussein. 2012. Statement by H.E. Ambassador Hussein Haniff, Permanent Representative of Malaysia to the United Nations, on Agenda Items 14 and 117: Integrated and Coordinated Implementation of and Follow-up to the Outcomes of the Major United Nations Conferences and Summits in the Economic, Social and Related Fields; and Follow-up to the Outcome of the Millennium Summit: Report of the Secretary-General (A/66/763), at the Plenary of the 66th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 4 June 2012. https://www.un.int/malaysia/sites/www.un.int/files/Malaysia/66th_session/66unga83_1417.pdf4. Accessed 20 June 2017.
- ———. 2015. Statement by H.E. Ambassador Hussein Haniff, Permanent Representative of Malaysia at the Security Council Open Debate on ‘Inclusive Development for the Maintenance of International Peace and Security’ New York, January 19. https://www.un.int/malaysia/sites/www.un.int/files/Malaysia/2015-Statements-Security-Council/2015-01-19_-_unsc_open_debate_-inclusive_dev_for_maintenance_of_int_peace_and_security-_f.pdf. Accessed 25 June 2017.
- Human Rights Watch. 2012. Civil Society Denounces Adoption of Flawed ASEAN Human Rights Declaration. November. https://www.hrw.org/news/2012/11/19/civil-society-denounces-adoption-flawed-asean-human-rights-declaration.
- Jalil, Haikal. 2015. Time for ASEAN to Review Non-interference Policy in Light of the Rohingya Issue. Sun Daily, May 22. http://www.thesundaily.my/news/1427817
- Khan, Amin. 2015. Throwing Light on Crime Statistics. The Star, April 19.Google Scholar
- Mak, J.N. 2004. Malaysian Defense and Security Cooperation: Coming Out of the Closet. In Asia-Pacific Cooperation: National Interests and Regional Order, ed. Tan See Seng and Amitav Acharya, 127–153. New York: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
- Peck, Grant. 2009. Activists Call New SE Asia Rights Body Toothless. Newsday, October 23.Google Scholar
- Pusat Komas. 2016. Malaysia Racial Discrimination Report 2015. Petaling Jaya: Pusat Komas Malaysia.Google Scholar
- Razak, Mohamad Najib Abdul. 2001. Defending Malaysia: Facing the 21st Century. London: ASEAN Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Rolls, Mark G., and Benny Teh Cheng Guan. 2014. ASEAN’s Role in the Development of Non-Traditional Regional Security. In Volume 1: Foreign Policy and Security in an Asian Century: Threats, Strategies and Policy Choices, ed. Benny Teh Cheng Guan, 213–234. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.Google Scholar
- Sampath, G. 2015. Amartya Sen: National Security Is One Component of Human Security. The Hindu, September 6. http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/interview/interview-with-prof-amartya-sen-national-security-is-one-component-of-human-security/article8022388.ece.
- Sipalan, Joseph. 2014. Unity Council Presents Three Draft Bills to Replace Sedition Act. Malay Mail Online, June 6. http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/unity-council-presents-three-draft-bills-to-replace-sedition-act.
- SUARAM. 2014. Malaysia Human Rights Report 2014. Petaling Jaya: Suara Inisiatif Sdn Bhd.Google Scholar
- ———. 2015. Human Rights Report 2015 Overview: Civil and Political Rights. Petaling Jaya: Suara Inisiatif Sdn Bhd.Google Scholar
- SUHAKAM. 2015a. Throwing Light on the Aim and Mandate of Suhakam. Malaysiakini, June 1. https://www.malaysiakini.com/letters/300337.
- ———. 2015b. SUHAKAM Annual Report 2014. Kuala Lumpur: Human Rights Commission of Malaysia.Google Scholar
- Sun Daily. 2015. GTP, ETP Showing Positive Results. Sun Daily, April 29.Google Scholar
- Teh, Benny Cheng Guan. 2009. ASEAN Rights Panel Offers Scant Defense of Victims. Japan Times, August 28.Google Scholar
- ———. 2012. Introduction: Human Security Development and the Future of East Asia. In Human Security: Securing East Asia’s Future, ed. Benny Teh Cheng Guan, 1–14. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Tenaganita. 2015. The Revolving Door: Modern Day Slavery (Refugees). Petaling Jaya: Tenaganita Sdn. Bhd.Google Scholar
- UNDP (United Nations Development Program). 1994. Human Development Report 1994. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Zain, Zawiyah Mohd, and Mohammad Agus Yusoff. 2015. The Emergence of Civil Disobedience: A Comparison during Dr. Mahathir and Abdullah Badawi’s Era. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 6 (1): 279–285.Google Scholar
- CSO Source #1. 2016. Francis Loh, then president of Aliran. Interviewed by authors, March 17.Google Scholar
- CSO Source #2. 2016. Debbie Stothard, founder of ALTSEAN-Burma. Interviewed by authors, March 21.Google Scholar
- CSO Source #3. 2016. Marina Mahathir, board member of Sisters in Islam. Interviewed by authors, March 22.Google Scholar
- CSO Source #4. 2016. Aegile Fernandez, director of Tenaganita. Interviewed by authors, January 20.Google Scholar
- CSO Source #5. 2016. Hafidzi Mohd Noor, Chairman of MyCare, IKRAM. Interviewed by authors, February 22.Google Scholar
- Government Source #1. 2016. Mohamad Azizi bin Azmi, principal assistant secretary at SUHAKAM. Interviewed by authors, February 24.Google Scholar
- Parliamentarian Source #1. 2016. Charles Santiago, member of parliament for Klang. Interviewed by authors, January 29.Google Scholar
- Parliamentarian Source #2. 2016. Zairil Khir Johari, then member of parliament for Bukit Bendera. Interviewed by authors, April 4.Google Scholar