Advertisement

Affordance as Boundary in Intersemiotic Translation: Some Insights from Working with Sign Languages in Poetic Form

  • Kyra Pollitt
Chapter

Abstract

Pollitt offers a perspective emerging from the encounter between sign languages and alphabetized languages. The examples illustrating this chapter are drawn from the challenge of translating sign language poetry, or ‘Signart’. The densely semiotic, three-dimensional nature of Signart increases the demand on translators to expand their intersemiotic range in order to achieve successful translation. Given here as case studies, Pollitt’s experimental intersemiotic practices harness the semiotic resources of various communication modes and materials. Situated in relation to a number of contemporary translation theories, this chapter explores the new meanings that are made available by these alternative translational practices. Pollitt suggests intersemiotic translations of Signart can engage new audiences in different ways, thereby developing new social and cultural forms of communication beyond traditional translations of Signart.

References

  1. Alland, Sandra, Khairani Barokka, and Daniel Sluman. 2017. Stairs and Whispers: D/deaf and Disabled Poets Write Back. Rugby: Nine Arches Press.Google Scholar
  2. Barthes, Roland. 1977/2012. Writing Degree Zero. Translated by Annette Lavers. London: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  3. Benjamin, Walter. 1923/2000. “The Task of the Translator.” In The Translation Studies Reader, edited by Lawrence Venuti, 15–25. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Baynton, Douglas C. 1996. Forbidden Signs: American Culture and the Campaign against Sign Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beuys, Joseph. 1997. “Questions to Joseph Beuys.” In Joseph Beuys: The Multiples, edited by Jörg Schellmann, translated by Caroline Tisdall, 9. Munich and New York: Edition Schellmann.Google Scholar
  6. Brennan, Mary. 1990. “Word Formation in BSL.” PhD dissertation, University of Stockholm.Google Scholar
  7. Brennan, Mary. 1992. “The Visual World of BSL: An Introduction.” In British Deaf Association Dictionary of British Sign Language/English, edited by David Brien, 1–133. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  8. Clüver, Claus, and Burton Watson. 1989. “On Intersemiotic Transposition.” Poetics Today 10 (1): 55–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cook, Peter. 2002. “Flying Words: A Conversation between Peter Cook and Kenny Lerner.” In Signs and Voices: Deaf Culture, Identity, Language and Arts, edited by Kristen A Lindgren, Doreen Deluca, and Donna J. Napoli, 214–19. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cronin, Michael. 2003. Translation and Globalization. London: Routledge; New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  11. Crow, David. 2006. Left to Right/The Cultural Shift from Words to Pictures. Lausanne: AVA Academia.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Meulder, Maartje. 2015. “The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages.” Sign Language Studies 6 (4): 498–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Derrida, Jacques. 1967/1997. Of Grammatology. Translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Corrected Edition. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins.Google Scholar
  14. Díaz-Cintas, Jorge, and Aline Remael. 2007. Audiovisual Translation, Subtitling (Translation Practices Explained). Abingdon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Dickinson, Jules. 2010. “Interpreting in a Community of Practice: A Sociolinguistic Study of the Signed Language Interpreter’s Role in Workplace Discourse.” PhD thesis, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  16. Elleström, Lars. 2010. “The Modalities of Media: A Model for Understanding Intermedial Relations.” In Media Borders, Multimodality and Intermediality, edited by Lars Elleström, 11–50. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  17. Emmorey, Karen. 2014 “Iconicity as Structure Mapping.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Science). The Royal Society.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0301.
  18. Fenellosa, Ernest. 1920. The Chinese Character as a Medium for Poetry. London: Instigations.Google Scholar
  19. Garcia, Joseph. 2002. Sign with Your Baby: How to Communicate with Infants before They Can Speak. Northlight Communications Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Hakuta, Kenji, and Rafael M. Diaz. 1985. “The Relationship between Degree of Bilingualism and Cognitive Ability: A Critical Discussion and Some New Longitudinal Data.” In Children’s Language, edited by Keith E. Nelson, 319–44. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Humphries, Tom, Poorna Kushalnagar, Gaurav Mathur, Donna Jo Napoli, Carol Padden, Christian Rathmann, and Scott Smith. 2015. “Discourses of Prejudice in the Professions: The Case of Sign Languages.” Journal of Medical Ethics. http://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2017/03/09/medethics-2015-103242. Accessed August 14, 2017.
  22. Kandinsky, Vassily. 1919. “Little Articles on Big Questions”. In Kandinsky: Complete Writings on Art, edited by Kenneth C. Lindsay, and Peter Vergo. 1982, vol. 1, 1901–1921. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  23. Klee, Paul. 2013. Creative Confession and Other Writings. London: Tate.Google Scholar
  24. Krentz, Christopher. 2006. “The Camera as Printing Press: How Film Has Influenced ASL Literature.” In Signing the Body Poetic: Essays on American Sign Language Literature, edited by H-Dirksen L. Bauman, Jennifer L. Nelson, and Heidi Rose, 51–70. California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Kress, Gunther. 2003. Literacy in the New Media Age. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Ladd, Paddy. 2003. Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood. London: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lane, Harlan. 1984. When the Mind Hears: A History of the Deaf. London: Random House.Google Scholar
  28. Lecercle, Jean-Jacques. 1990. The Violence of Language. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Liddell, Scott K. 2003. Grammar, Gesture, and Meaning in American Sign Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 1969. “Eye and Mind.” In The Essential Writings of Merleau-Ponty, edited by Alden L. Fisher. New York: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
  31. Mitchell, William J.T. 1986. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Ortega y Gasset, José. 1937. “The Misery and the Splendor of Translation.” Translated by Elizabeth Gamble Miller. In The Translation Studies Reader, edited by Lawrence Venuti, 49–63. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Parish, Nina, and Emma Wagstaff. 2017. “Poetry’s Forms and Transformations.” Call for forthcoming special issue of L’Esprit Créateur. translating.hypotheses.org, with reference to frenchpoetryand.wordpress.com. Online call accessed 5.8.17, volume in press as at 26.02.18.
  34. Pollitt, Kyra. 2011. “Why We Liked PIG” in NEWSLI, the magazine of the Association of Sign Language Interpreters (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) and reproduced in the magazine of ASLIA, the Association of Australian Sign Language Interpreters.Google Scholar
  35. Pollitt, Kyra. 2014. “Signart: (British) Sign Language Poetry as Gesamtkunstwerk.” PhD thesis, University of Bristol.Google Scholar
  36. Pollitt, Kyra. 2017. “Poetry of the Eye.” In Magma Poetry (69, Autumn) ‘The Deaf Issue’. Edited by Lisa Kelly, Raymond Antrobus.Google Scholar
  37. Rose, Heidi M. 1994. “Stylistic Features in American Sign Language Literature.” Text and Performance Quarterly 14 (2): 144–57.Google Scholar
  38. Stokoe, William C. 1960 [revised 1978]. Sign Language Structure: An Outline of Visual Communication Systems of the American Deaf. Washington, DC: University of Buffalo.Google Scholar
  39. Stokoe, William C., Dorothy C. Casterline, and Carl G. Croneberg. 1965 (revised 1976). A Dictionary of American Sign Language on Linguistic Principles. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College Press, Linstok Press.Google Scholar
  40. Sutton-Spence, Rachel. 2005. Analysing Sign Language Poetry. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Sutton-Spence, Rachel, and Bencie Woll. 1999. The Linguistics of British Sign Language: An Introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Taub, Sarah F. 2001. Language from the Body: Iconicity and Metaphor in American Sign Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Turner, Graham. 2006. “Why Protect Heritage Sign Languages?” International Journal of Applied Linguistics 16 (3): 409–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Turner, Graham, and Kyra Pollitt. 2002. “Community Interpreting Meets Literary Translation: English-BSL Interpreting in the Theatre.” The Translator 8 (1): 25–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ulmer, Gregory L. 1985. Applied Grammatology: Post(e)-Pedagogy from Jacques Derrida to Joseph Beuys. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Veditz, George. 1912. “Address to the Ninth Convention of the National Association of the Deaf (U.S.A.) and the Third World Congress of the Deaf, 1910.” Philosophocus Press.Google Scholar
  47. Venuti, Lawrence. 2000. “Translation, Community, Utopia.” In The Translation Studies Reader, edited by Lawrence Venuti, 468–88. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Vermeer, Hans J. 1989. “Skopos and Commission in Translational Action.” Translated by Andrew Chesterman. In The Translation Studies Reader, edited by Lawrence Venuti, 221–32. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Wadensjö, Cecilia. 1998. Interpreting as Interaction. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  50. Wurm, Svenja. 2014. “Deconstructing Translation and Interpreting Prototypes: A Case of Written-to-Signed Translation.” Translation and Interpreting Studies 7 (3): 249–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xu, Bing. 2014. Book from the Ground. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyra Pollitt
    • 1
  1. 1.Researcher-practitionerEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations