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Early Onset of Depression During Childhood and Adolescence

  • Benjamin G. Shapero
  • Erica Mazzone
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Psychiatry book series (CCPSY)

Abstract

Identifying, preventing, and treating the early onset of depression during childhood and adolescence presents unique challenges for mental health professionals. The rates of depression are relatively low in childhood but increase dramatically in mid-to-late adolescence. Young people with depression are at an increased risk for academic and social impairment and the development of later substance abuse, suicide, and the persistence or reoccurrence of depression into adulthood. This highlights the importance of identifying and treating depression early during these ages. The presentation of depression in youth resembles that of adults; however, it can be difficult to differentiate features of the disorder from the typical patterns of sadness and irritability during these transitional years. Clinicians must also be adept at differentiating depression from other related disorders. Once identified, there are several empirically supported intervention options. These include psychotherapies (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy) that are effective at reducing symptoms and improving overall functioning. Clinicians may also consider medication-based treatments, especially in cases of severe depression, with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, particularly fluoxetine, demonstrating the greatest efficacy. Studies have also supported the combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and fluoxetine as effective. Finally, there are several alternative treatment options, such as exercise, behavioral activation, family therapy, and non-approved medications. It is essential for clinicians and families to weigh the costs and benefits of each treatment approach, taking differences such as age, depression severity, and the presence of suicidal ideation into consideration.

Keywords

Child Adolescent Transitional aged youth Early onset Depression Major depressive disorder 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin G. Shapero
    • 1
  • Erica Mazzone
    • 1
  1. 1.Depression Clinical and Research Program, Department of PsychiatryMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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