From Co-productions to ‘Co-distributions’? Re-evaluating Distribution Policies for European Film
- 179 Downloads
Drake explores the under-researched relationship between European film production and distribution, and examines a range of European policies designed to support film distribution, including digital and video-on-demand (VOoD)/Over-the-Top (OTT) distribution. Significant focus has been placed on understanding production in European cinema; however, there has been a lack of scholarly analysis of distribution. The article offers an analysis of MEDIA programme support for distribution, presenting data across participating countries, and highlights differential forms of subsidies for pan-European film distribution. It concludes with an analysis of two recent European initiatives to support cross-border digital distribution: Walk This Way (WtW) and The TIDE Experiment, and considers how alternative forms of distribution across national boundaries (‘co-distributions’) might reach wider audiences through a combination of traditional and digital distribution platforms.
- Caranicas, Peter. 2017. European Digital Initiatives Offer New Paths for Distributing Indie Films. Variety, July 4. Accessed October 15, 2017. http://variety.com/2017/digital/news/europe-digital-initiatives-distribution-indie-films-1202487219/.
- Creative Europe. 2018. Call for Proposals EACEA 28/2015: Summary of Selected Projects. http://www.creativeeurope.be/sites/creativeeurope/files/media/online_distribution_projecten_eacea_28_2015.pdf.
- Crusafon, Carmina. 2015. The European Audiovisual Space: How European Media Policy Has Set the Pace of Its Development. In European Film and Television: Cultural Policy and Everyday Life, ed. Ib Bondebjerg, Eva Novrup Redvall, and Andrew Higson, 81–101. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Cunningham, Stuart, and Jon Silver, eds. 2013. Screen Distribution and the New King-Kongs of the Online World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Curtin, Michael, Jennifer Holt, and Kevin Sanson, eds. 2014. Distribution Revolution: Conversations about the Digital Future of Film and Television. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- De Vinck, Sophie, and Caroline Pauwels. 2015. Beyond Borders and into the Digital Era: Future-proofing European-level Film Support Schemes. In European Film and Television: Cultural Policy and Everyday Life, ed. Ib Bondebjerg, Eva Novrup Redvall, and Andrew Higson, 102–126. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Donders, Karen, Caroline Pauwels, and Jan Loisen, eds. 2014. The Palgrave Handbook of European Media Policy. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
- Drake, Philip. 2008. Distribution and Marketing in Contemporary Hollywood. In The Contemporary Hollywood Film Industry, ed. Paul McDonald and Janet Wasko, 63–82. Oxford and New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- ———. 2013. Policy or Practice? Deconstructing the Creative Industries. In Behind the Screen: Inside European Production Cultures, ed. Petr Szczepanik and Patrick Vonderau. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Drake, Philip, Michael Franklin, Deborah Sathe, and Sarah Tierney. 2015. We Are Colony: Digital VOD Distribution for Independent Film. London: Nesta.Google Scholar
- Grece, Christian. 2017. Trends in the EU SVOD Market. European Audiovisual Observatory (Council of Europe), Strasbourg. Accessed 18 January 2018. https://rm.coe.int/trends-in-the-eu-svod-market-nov-2017/16807899ab.
- Iordanova, Dina, and Stuart Cunningham, eds. 2012. Digital Disruption: Cinema Moves On-line. St Andrews: St Andrews Film Studies.Google Scholar
- Jäckel, Anne. 2015. Changing the Image of Europe? The Role of European Co-Productions, Funds and Film Awards. In The Europeanness of European Cinema: Identity, Meaning, Globalization, ed. Mary Harrod, Mariana Liz, and Alissa Timoshkina, 59–72. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
- ———. 2017. Extracts from MeCETES Film Database [database]. Unpublished data from LUMIERE/European Audiovisual Observatory (European Territories) and the European Commission.Google Scholar
- ———. forthcoming. Transnational European Cinema: Cross-Border Circulation and Reception. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Katsarova, Ivana. 2014. An Overview of Europe’s Film Industry. European Parliamentary Research Service. Accessed 1 January 2018. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2014/545705/EPRS_BRI(2014)545705_REV1_EN.pdf.
- Liz, Mariana. 2015. From Co-production to the Euro-pudding. In The Europeanness of European Cinema: Identity, Meaning, Globalization, ed. Mary Harrod, Mariana Liz, and Alissa Timoshkina, 73–86. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
- Paris, Thomas, Lucie Girre, Asmit Jain, and Aurélia Porret. 2015. New Approaches for Greater Diversity of Cinema in Europe? Analyses of Experiments Launched in the Context of the Preparatory Action ‘Circulation of Films in the Digital Era’. European Parliament and European Commission. Accessed 14 February 2018. http://ec.europa.eu/assets/eac/culture/library/studies/cinema-diversity-report_en.pdf.
- Talavera, Julio. 2017. Film Production in Europe—Production Volume, Co-production and Worldwide Circulation. Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory. Accessed 14 February 2018. https://rm.coe.int/film-production-in-europe-2017/168078798c.
- Wutz, Josef, and Valentin Pérez. 2014. Dissemination of European Cinema in the European Union and the International Market. Paris: Jacque Delors Institute.Google Scholar