Advertisement

Being Mapuche in Modern Chile: Illness Experiences, Medical Choices and Social Positions

  • Dorthe Brogård Kristensen
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter it is argued that medicine is increasingly effective according to the degree it resolves a “referential dissonance” between a personal life story and socio-political reality. The chapter analyses the illness stories of two Mapuche men who have migrated to the city. These stories include complex notions of illness, as well as a number of disease categories and aetiological explanations. Hence the illness stories of these men appear to be complex, confusing and fragmentary; this is, I suggest, because they reproduce a gap in the languages that inform their lives, a gap reflected in their use of disease categories and treatments that present a certain cultural confusion and fragmentation. Indigenous medical treatment both embodied and mediated opposing social forces and languages. By so doing, it created a referential resonance (Han, Life in Debt. Times of Care and Violence in Neoliberal Chile. London: University of California Press, 2012) between personal experience, selfhood, current social environment and medical practitioner.

References

  1. Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella. 2007. Thunder Shaman. Making History with Mapuche Spirits in Chile and Patagonia. Texas: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella. 2016. Shamans of the Foye Tree. Gender, Power, and Healing among Chilean Mapuche. Texas: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  3. Citarella, Luca, et al. 1995. Medicinas y Cultura en la Araucanía. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Sudamericana.Google Scholar
  4. Coker, Elizabeth Marie. 2004. “Travelling Pains”: Embodied Metaphors of Suffering among Southern Sudanese Refugees in Cairo. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 28: 15–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Das, Veena & Arthur Kleinman. 2001. Introduction. In: Veena Das, Arthur Kleinman, Margaret Lock, Mamphela Ramphele & Pamela Reynolds (eds.), Remaking a World: Violence, Social Suffering and Recovery. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, pp. 1–31.Google Scholar
  6. Digiacomo, Susan. 1992. Metaphor as Illness: Postmodern Dilemmas in the Representation of Body, Mind and Disorder. Medical Anthropology 14: 109–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Foerster, Rolf. 1993. Introducción a la Religiosidad Mapuche. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria.Google Scholar
  8. Guarnaccia, Peter. 1993. Ataques de Nervios in Puerto Rico: Culture-Bound Syndromes or Popular Illness. Medical Anthropology 15: 157–1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Han, Clara. 2004. The Work of Indebtedness: The Traumatic Present of Late Capitalist Chile. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 28(2): 169–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Han, Clara. 2012. Life in Debt. Times of Care and Violence in Neoliberal Chile. London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. Instituto de Estudios Indigenas. 2003. Los Derechos de los Pueblos Indigenas en Chile: Informe de Programa de Derechos Indígenas. Universidad de la Frontera Temuco: Lom Ediciones.Google Scholar
  12. Kirmayer, Lawrence. 1988. Mind and Body as Hidden Values in Biomedicine. In: M. Lock & D.R. Gorden (eds.), Biomedicine Examined. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 57–93.Google Scholar
  13. Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård. 1999. Chile. In: The Indigenous World 1998–1999. København: Iwgia, pp. 121–124.Google Scholar
  14. Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård. 2000. Chile. In: The Indigenous World 1999–2000. København: Iwgia, pp. 142–148.Google Scholar
  15. Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård. 2001. Chile. In: The Indigenous World 2000–2001. København: Iwgia, pp. 161–167.Google Scholar
  16. Leder, Drew. 1990. The Absent Body. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Lindhardt, M. 2012. Power in powerlessness: a study of Pentecostal life worlds in urban Chile (Vol. 12). Brill.Google Scholar
  18. Lock, Margaret. 1993. Cultivating the Body: Anthropological and Epistemologies of Bodily Practices and Knowledge. Annual Review of Anthropology. 1993: 133–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lock, Margaret & Nancy Scheper-Hughes. 1990. A Critical-Interpretive Approach in Medical Anthropology: Rituals and Routines of Discipline and Dissent. In: T.M. Johnson and C.F. Sargent (eds.), Medical Anthropology, Contemporary Theory and Method. Westport: Praeger Publishers, pp. 47–72.Google Scholar
  20. Low, Setha. 1994. Embodied Metaphors: Nerves as Lived Experience. In: Thomas Csordas (ed.), Embodiment and Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 139–162.Google Scholar
  21. Mallon, F.E. 2005. Courage tastes of blood: The Mapuche community of Nicolás Ailío and the Chilean state, 1906–2001. Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 2002. Phenomenology of Perception. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pérez, Gabriela. 2000. Población Mapuche en Chile. Situación sociodemográfica. Censo de 1992. In: Sandrá Pérez Infante (ed.), Pueblo Mapuche: desarollo y autogestón. Análisis y perspectives en une sociedad pluricultural. Conception: escaparate Ediciones, pp. 61–79.Google Scholar
  24. Salazar, Gabriel & Julio Pinto. 1999. Historia contemporánea de Chile II: Actores, identidad y movimiento. Santiago: LOM Ediciones.Google Scholar
  25. Scheper-Hughes, N. 1994. Embodied Knowledge: Thinking with the Body in Critical Medical Anthropology. In: Robert Borofsky (ed.), Assessing Cultural Anthropology. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 229–241.Google Scholar
  26. Scheper-Hughes, Nancy & Margaret Lock. 1987. The Mindful Body: A Prolegomenon to Future Work in Medical Anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 1(1): 6–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sontag, Susan. 1991. Illness as Metaphor: Aids and its Metaphors. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  28. Taussig, Michael. 1980. The Devil and Commodity Fetishism in South America. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  29. Taussig, Michael. 1992. Reification and the Consciousness of the Patient. In: Michael Taussig (ed.), The Nervous System. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 83–111.Google Scholar
  30. Torri, Maria Costanza. 2012. Intercultural Health Practices: Towards an Equal Recognition Between Indigenous Medicine and Biomedicine? A case study from Chile. Health care Anal 20: 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dorthe Brogård Kristensen
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Southern DenmarkOdense MDenmark

Personalised recommendations