Classification of Frontal Recess Cells and Extent of Surgery
The frontal recess and sinus displays highly variable anatomy. This is largely due to the different pneumatization patterns of ethmoidal cells around and within the frontal recess. Although numerous classification and nomenclature systems have been proposed in an attempt to clarify the anatomy of this region, they lack optimal clarity and ease of use. This chapter reviews the cellular anatomy of the frontal recess and proposes a new, easy to use and intuitive classification system for describing frontal anatomy. In addition, we also introduce an additional classification system to describe the extent of surgery to the frontal sinus, as well as grading the difficulty of surgery to this region. We believe that these new systems will replace the more traditional classification systems and facilitate better training, reporting and communication thus ultimately improving frontal surgery outcomes.
KeywordsFrontal sinus Frontal recess Anatomy Classification Sinus anatomy Sinus surgery Radiology Frontal sinusotomy IFAC EFSS: ICC
- 7.Lund VJ, Stammberger H, Fokkens WJ, Beale T, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Eloy P, et al. European position paper on the anatomical terminology of the internal nose and paranasal sinuses. Rhinol Suppl. 2014;(24):1–34.Google Scholar
- 8.Van Alyea OE. Frontal sinus drainage. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1946;55(4):959. discussionGoogle Scholar