• Cassandra Wasson
  • Albert Kelly
  • David Ninan
  • Quy Tran


This chapter outlines the effects pregnancy has on the hepatic system. It addresses the changes in hepatic laboratory tests, such as AST, ALT, and ALP. It also discusses gallbladder disease during pregnancy.


Bilirubin ALT and AST Lactic dehydrogenase ALP Gallbladder disease 
  1. 1.

    Liver size, morphology , and blood flow do not change

  2. 2.

    Bilirubin, ALT, AST, and lactic dehydrogenase are upper limits of normal during pregnancy

  3. 3.

    ALP increases 2–4× due to production from placenta

  4. 4.

    Increased risk of gallbladder disease during pregnancy due to the inhibitory effects of progesterone on GI smooth muscles, leading to gallbladder hypomotility and subsequent biliary stasis


Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cassandra Wasson
    • 1
  • Albert Kelly
    • 1
  • David Ninan
    • 2
  • Quy Tran
    • 3
  1. 1.Riverside University Health System - Medical CenterMoreno ValleyUSA
  2. 2.Riverside University Health System - Medical CenterLoma LindaUSA
  3. 3.Harbor–UCLA Medical CenterTorranceUSA

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