Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (Hydatidiform Mole)

  • Cassandra Wasson
  • Albert Kelly
  • David Ninan
  • Quy Tran


This chapter discusses complete and partial hydatidiform moles.


Complete hydatidiform moles Partial hydatidiform moles Hyperemesis gravidarum Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) Severe anemia Hyperthyroidism 
  1. 1.
    Complete hydatidiform moles (90% of hydatid moles) are derived solely from paternal chromosomes (ovum lacking maternal chromosomal complement is fertilized by one sperm (46,XX androgenic) or by two sperm (dispermy 46,XX or 46,XY androgenic))
    1. (a)

      No fetus develops

  2. 2.
    Partial moles have complete trisomy (69,XXX or 69,XXY) (one set of chromosomes are maternal and two sets are paternal)
    1. (a)

      Often associated with fetal tissue

  3. 3.

    Clinical diagnosis: vaginal bleeding after delayed menses (as seen in threatened, missed, or incomplete abortion)

  4. 4.

    Hydatidiform moles have uterus large for gestational age, markedly elevated beta-hCG and lack of fetal cardiac activity

  5. 5.

    These patients are more prone to hyperemesis gravidarum, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), severe anemia, and/or hyperthyroidism (the alpha subunit of hCG is structurally similar to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH))

  6. 6.

    Signs and symptoms of acute cardiopulmonary distress develop after uterine evacuation in as many as 27% of molar pregnancies


Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cassandra Wasson
    • 1
  • Albert Kelly
    • 1
  • David Ninan
    • 2
  • Quy Tran
    • 3
  1. 1.Riverside University Health System - Medical CenterMoreno ValleyUSA
  2. 2.Riverside University Health System - Medical CenterLoma LindaUSA
  3. 3.Harbor–UCLA Medical CenterTorranceUSA

Personalised recommendations