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Pharmacology of Local Anesthetic Adjuvants

  • Cassandra Wasson
  • Albert Kelly
  • David Ninan
  • Quy Tran
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses the various adjuvants to local anesthetics, their roles, and their side effects.

Keywords

Opioids Opioid receptors Side effects of neuraxial opioids Epinephrine Bicarbonate Alpha2-adrenergic agonists (e.g. clonidine) Neostigmine 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cassandra Wasson
    • 1
  • Albert Kelly
    • 1
  • David Ninan
    • 2
  • Quy Tran
    • 3
  1. 1.Riverside University Health System - Medical CenterMoreno ValleyUSA
  2. 2.Riverside University Health System - Medical CenterLoma LindaUSA
  3. 3.Harbor–UCLA Medical CenterTorranceUSA

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