Advertisement

Hardness, Friction and Wear Trends of Electroless Ni-W-P Coating Heat-Treated at Different Temperatures

  • Abhijit BiswasEmail author
  • Suman Kalyan Das
  • Prasanta Sahoo
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering book series (LNMUINEN)

Abstract

The motive of this work is to analyze the effect of heating temperature on hardness along with wear characteristics of electroless Ni-W-P coating. In binary (Ni-P) coating, tungsten (around 5.22 wt%) is incorporated and heat-treated at 200, 400 and 800 °C for constant time period (1 h). Hardness and tribological tests are conducted on both as-deposited and heat-treated specimens. Hardness is found to be in a co-relative state with wear resistance for the present coatings. However, hardness as well as wear resistance decreases upon heat treatment at 800 °C. Ni-W-P coating is also found to display a quite low and stable COF value with testing duration. Microstructural analysis shows the morphology of the coating to be nodular. With heat treatment, the coating turns fully crystalline with the precipitation of harder Ni3P phases. At higher temperature, oxide formation over the coating is also observed. Both abrasive and adhesive wear mechanisms are found to govern the wear behavior of the present electroless Ni-W-P coatings. It is found that inclusion of tungsten promotes the tribological properties of Ni-P coatings even when subjected to high-temperature heat treatment.

Keywords

Electroless Ni-W-P Heat treatment Hardness Friction Wear 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The first author would like to acknowledge the financial assistance and facilities provided by University Grants Commission (UGC), Govt. of India through Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship.

References

  1. 1.
    Sahoo, P., Das, S.K.: Tribology of electroless nickel coatings—a review. Mater. Des. 32(4), 1760–1775 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brenner, A., Riddell, G.E.: Nickel plating on steel by chemical reduction. J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 37(1), 31–34 (1946)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agarwala, R.C., Agarwala, V.: Electroless alloy/composite coatings: a review. Sadhana 28(3), 475–493 (2003)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Biswas, A., Das, S.K., Sahoo, P.: Effect of heat treatment duration on tribological behavior of electroless Ni-(high)P coatings. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 149(1), 012045 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Keong, K.G., Sha, W., Malinov, S.: Hardness evolution of electroless nickel–phosphorus deposits with thermal processing. Surf. Coat. Technol. 168(2), 263–274 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biswas, A., Das, S.K., Sahoo, P.: Correlating tribological performance with phase transformation behavior for electroless Ni-(high)P coating. Surf. Coat. Technol. 328(Supplement C), 102–114 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yoon, J.W., Park, J.H., Shur, C.C., Jung, S.B.: Characteristic evaluation of electroless nickel–phosphorus deposits with different phosphorus contents. Microelectron. Eng. 84(11), 2552–2557 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu, H., Guo, R.X., Liu, Z.: Effects of laser nanocrystallisation on the wear behaviour of electroless Ni–W–P coatings. Surf. Coat. Technol. 219(Supplement C), 31–41 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guo, Z., Keong, K.G., Sha, W.: Crystallisation and phase transformation behaviour of electroless nickel phosphorus platings during continuous heating. J. Alloy. Compd. 358(1), 112–119 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Erming, M., Shoufu, L., Pengxing, L.: A transmission electron microscopy study on the crystallization of amorphous Ni-P electroless deposited coatings, Metallurgical Coatings. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, pp. 273–280 (1988)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Keong, K.G., Sha, W., Malinov, S.: Crystallisation kinetics and phase transformation behaviour of electroless nickel–phosphorus deposits with high phosphorus content. J. Alloy. Compd. 334(1), 192–199 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hou, K.H., Jeng, M.C., Ger, M.D.: The heat treatment effects on the structure and wear behavior of pulse electroforming Ni–P alloy coatings. J. Alloy. Compd. 437(1), 289–297 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tomlinson, W.J., Wilson, G.R.: The oxidation of electroless Ni-B and Ni-P coatings in air at 800 to 1000°C. J. Mater. Sci. 21(1), 97–102 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balaraju, J.N., Rajam, K.S.: Electroless deposition of Ni–Cu–P, Ni–W–P and Ni–W–Cu–P alloys. Surf. Coat. Technol. 195(2), 154–161 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Palaniappa, M., Seshadri, S.K.: Structural and phase transformation behaviour of electroless Ni–P and Ni–W–P deposits. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 460461(Supplement C), 638–644 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hu, Y., Wang, T., Meng, J., Rao, Q.: Structure and phase transformation behaviour of electroless Ni–W–P on aluminium alloy. Surf. Coat. Technol. 201(3), 988–992 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Allahyarzadeh, M.H., Aliofkhazraei, M., Rezvanian, A.R., Torabinejad, V., Rouhaghdam, A.R.S.: Ni-W electrodeposited coatings: characterization, properties and applications. Surf. Coat. Technol. 307(Part A), 978–1010 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roy, S., Sahoo, P.: Optimization of multiple roughness characteristics of chemically deposited Ni-PW coating using weighted principal component analysis. ISRN Mechanical Engineering, Article ID 495857, pp. 7 pages (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hu, Y.J., Xiong, L., Meng, J.: Electron microscopic study on interfacial characterization of electroless Ni–W–P plating on aluminium alloy. Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 5029–5034 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Selvi, V.E., Chatterji, P., Subramanian, S., Balaraju, J.N.: Autocatalytic duplex Ni–P/Ni–W–P coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy. Surf. Coat. Technol. 240(Supplement C), 103–109 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tsai, Y.Y., Wu, F.B., Chen, Y.I., Peng, P.J., Duh, J.G., Tsai, S.Y.: Thermal stability and mechanical properties of Ni–W–P electroless deposits. Surf. Coat. Technol. 146147(Supplement C), 502–507 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mukhopadhyay, A., Duari, S., Barman, T.K., Sahoo, P.: Investigation of wear behavior of electroless Ni-PW coating under dry and lubricated conditions using RSM and fuzzy logic. Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta 34(4), 231–255 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eraslan, S., Ürgen, M.: Oxidation behavior of electroless Ni–P, Ni–B and Ni–W–B coatings deposited on steel substrates. Surf. Coat. Technol. 265(Supplement C), 46–52 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Duari, S., Mukhopadhyay, A., Barman, T.K., Sahoo, P.: Tribological performance optimization of electroless nickel coatings under lubricated condition. In: Design and Optimization of Mechanical Engineering Products IGI Global, pp. 250–280 (2018)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mukhopadhyay, A., Barman, T.K., Sahoo, P.: Tribological behavior of sodium borohydride reduced electroless nickel alloy coatings at room and elevated temperatures. Surf. Coat. Technol. 321, 464–476 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mukhopadhyay, A., Duari, S., Barman, T.K., Sahoo, P.: Wear behavior of electroless Ni-P-W coating under lubricated condition—a Taguchi based approach. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 149(1), 012004 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Duari, S., Mukhopadhyay, A., Barman, T.K., Sahoo, P.: Study of wear and friction of chemically deposited Ni-P-W coating under dry and lubricated condition. Surf. Interfaces 6, 177–189 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sahoo, P., Roy, S.: Tribological behavior of electroless Ni-P, Ni-P-W and Ni-P-Cu coatings: a comparison. Int. J. Surf. Eng. Interdisc. Mater. Sci. (IJSEIMS) 5(1), 1–15 (2017)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mukhopadhyay, A., Barman, T.K., Sahoo, P.: Tribological behavior of electroless Ni–B–W coating at room and elevated temperatures. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, pp. 1350650118755781 (2018)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Palaniappa, M., Seshadri, S.K.: Friction and wear behavior of electroless Ni–P and Ni–W–P alloy coatings. Wear 265(5), 735–740 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Balaraju, J.N., Raman, N., Manikandanath, N.T.: Nanocrystalline electroless nickel poly-alloy deposition: incorporation of W and Mo. Trans. IMF 92(3), 169–176 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Balaraju, J.N., Kalavati, Rajam, K.S.: Surface morphology and structure of electroless ternary NiWP deposits with various W and P contents. J. Alloy. Compd. 486(1), 468–473 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wu, F.B., Tien, S.K., Chen, W.Y., Duh, J.G.: Microstructure evaluation and strengthening mechanism of Ni–P–W alloy coatings. Surf. Coat. Technol. 177178(Supplement C), 312–316 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tien, S.K., Duh, J.G., Chen, Y.I.: The influence of thermal treatment on the microstructure and hardness in electroless Ni–P–W deposit. Thin Solid Films 469470(Supplement C), 333–338 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Koiwa, I., Usuda, M., Osaka, T.: Effect of heat-treatment on the structure and resistivity of electroless Ni-W-P alloy films. J. Electrochem. Soc. 135(5), 1222–1228 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mukhopadhyay, A., Duari, S., Barman, T.K., Sahoo, P.: Optimization of wear behavior of electroless Ni-PW coating under dry and lubricated conditions using genetic algorithm (GA). Jurnal Tribologi 11, 24–48 (2016)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Krishnaveni, K., Sankara Narayanan, T.S.N., Seshadri, S.K.: Electroless Ni–B coatings: preparation and evaluation of hardness and wear resistance. Surf. Coat. Technol. 190(1), 115–121 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Karthikeyan, S., Vijayaraghavan, L.: Investigation of the surface properties of heat treated electroless Ni–P coating. Trans. IMF 94(5), 265–273 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sahoo, P.: Wear behaviour of electroless Ni–P coatings and optimization of process parameters using Taguchi method. Mater. Des. 30(4), 1341–1349 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sahoo, P., Pal, S.K.: Tribological performance optimization of electroless Ni–P coatings using the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis. Tribol. Lett. 28(2), 191–201 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gawne, D.T., Ma, U.: Wear mechanisms in electroless nickel coatings. Wear 120(2), 125–149 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kundu, S., Das, S.K., Sahoo, P.: Tribological behaviour of electroless Ni-P deposits under elevated temperature. Silicon, 1–14 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhijit Biswas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Suman Kalyan Das
    • 1
  • Prasanta Sahoo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations