Analysis of Casting Defects in Investment Casting by Simulation

  • Sudip BanerjeeEmail author
  • Goutam Sutradhar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering book series (LNMUINEN)


The present study shows the benefit of using casting simulation software in investment casting to analyze different defects like shrinkage porosity, cold shut, blowholes, and hard zones. In this context, three industrial case studies are discussed. For the first case, 100NB flange is taken as component and simulation is done by considering different types of in-gates to study the effect of shape of in-gate on different casting defects. In the second case, effect of pouring temperature on shrinkage size is examined by considering flange as component and proper methoding is done with the help of simulation software. In third case study, pistol body is taken as component and effect of pouring temperature and need of proper methoding on different casting defects are examined. All the simulation results are validated with shop-floor trial results.


Investment casting Shrinkage porosity Cold shut Blowholes Hard zone 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the research support provided by Vikas Hitech Castings, Sankrail Industrial Park, Howrah, 3D Foundry Tech, Mumbai, DHIO Research & Engineering Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, and financial support of ‘SMART FOUNDRY-2020,’ DST, Government of India.


  1. 1.
    Ravi, B., Datta, G.L.: Metal casting: back to future. In: Proceedings of the 52nd Indian Foundry Congress, Hyderabad, February 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Datta, G.L.: Reinventing investment casting process for sustainable development. Indian Foundry J. 60, 21–27 (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ravi, B.: Investment casting development: ancient and modern approaches. In: National Conference on Investment Casting Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chalekar, A.A., Daphal, S.A., Somatkar, A.A., Chinchanikar, S.S.: Minimization of investment casting defects by using computer simulation—a case study. J. Mech. Eng. Autom. 5, 43–46 (2015)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pal, S.: Ancient indian art casting. Foundry 13, 13–23 (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eddy, W.P., Barbero, R.J., Dieters, W.I., Esarey, B.J., Frey, L., Gros, J.R., Hall, J.C., Hockin, J., Nelligan, P.J., Powell, R.C., Watts, C.H., Wenner, J.: Investment casting. In: Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, pp. 237–261 (1974)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pal, D.K., Ravi, B., Bhargava, L.S., Chandrashekhar, U.: Investment casting one-off intricate part using rapid prototyping technology. In: National Conference on Investment Casting, CMERI, Durgapur, pp. 22–23 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Santra, S., Sengupta, G., Bhattacharya, D.: Recent bronze hoard from West Bengal: analytical studies. Indian J. History Sci. 43, 29–42 (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lal, M., Khanna, O.P.: A Text Book of Foundry Technology. Dhanpat Rai & SonsGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mukherjee, M.: Metal Craftsmen of India, Anthropological Survey of India, Govt. of India (1978)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simpson, B.L.: History of the Metal Casting Industry. American Foundrymen’s Society, Illinois, USA (1969)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ravi, B.: Computer-aided casting design-past, present and future. Indian Foundry J. 45, 65–74 (1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kochan, D., Chee Kai, C., Zhaohui, D.: Rapid prototyping issues in the 21st century. Comput. Ind. 39, 3–10 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Deepan, D., Piyush, T.: Advanced in investment casting—India. In: 13th World Conference on Investment Casting, Japan, 2012 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hazra Choudhury, S.K., Hazra Choudhury, A.K., Roy, N.: Elements of Workshop Technology-I Manufacturing Process. Media Promoters and Publishers Private Limited (1964)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    51st Census of World Casting Production: Modest growth in worldwide casting market. Modern Cast. 1–55 (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vinayak, M.: Foundry Industries Development Prospects in the Sixth Plan Period. Foundry Directory, IIF (1982)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oudhia, S.P.: An overview of Indian foundry industry. Metalworld 22–24 (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Metalworld Research Team: Indian Foundry industry on growth path. Metalworld 20–23 (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    SataA, SutariaM: Scope of investment castings supported by survey of foundries in Rajkot cluster. Indian Foundry J. 60, 42–46 (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Das, S., Upadhya, G.K., Paul, A.J., Chandra, U.: Modelling the investment casting process: a novel approach for view factor calculations and defect prediction. Appl. Math. Modelling 19, 354–362 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Uday, A.D., Rahul, C.B.: Casting defect analysis using design of experiments (DoE) and computer aided casting simulation technique. Procedia CIRP 7, 616–621 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Amin, L.D., Patel, S., Mishra, P., Joshi, D.: Rapid development of industrial castings using computer simulation. Indian Foundry J. 60, 40–42 (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    JadhaoVS, SalunkeJJ: Review paper on simulation based casting. Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol. 3, 17370–17374 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dong, Y.W., Li, X.L., Zhao, Q., Yang, J., Dao, M.: Modelling of shrinkage during investment casting of thin-walled hollow turbine blades. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 244, 190–203 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jabur, A.S., Kushnaw, F.M.: Casting simulation and prediction of shrinkage cavities. J. Appl. Comput. Math. 6, 1–7 (2017)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shamasundar, S., Manjunatha, T.M.: Computer simulation and analysis of investment casting process. Foundry 29–44 (2004)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yong, M.S., Fu, M.W.: Simulation-enabled casting product defect prediction in die casting process. Int. J. Prod. Res. 47, 5203–5216 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tiberto, D., Klotz, U.E.: Computer simulation applied to jewellery casting: challenges, results and future possibilities. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 33, 1–10 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beffel, M.J., Yu, K.O., Robinson, M., Schneider, K.R.: Computer simulation of investment casting process. Design 27–30 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sabau, A.S.: Numerical simulation of the investment casting process. AFS Trans. 160, 1–11 (2005)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Norouzi, S., Shams, A., Farhangi, H., Darvish, A.: The temperature range in the simulation of residual stress and hot tearing during investment casting. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. 3, 558–564 (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hang, Z., Qingyan, X., Baicheng, L.: Numerical simulation and optimization of directional solidification process of single crystal superalloy casting. Materials 7, 16–25 (2014)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chattopadhyay, H.: Estimation of solidification time in investment casting process. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 55, 35–38 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhang, D., Jiang, R., Li, J., Wang, W., Bu, K.: Cavity optimization for investment casting die of turbine blade based on reverse engineering. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48, 839–846 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Guan, J., Dieckhues, G.W., Sahm, P.R.: Analysis of residual stresses and cracking of γ-TiAl castings. Intermetallics 2, 89–94 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sung, P.K., Poirier, D.R., Felicelli, S.D., Poirier, E.J., Ahmed, A.: Simulations of micro-porosity in IN718 equiaxed investment castings. J. Cryst. Growth 226, 363–377 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Blair, M., Monroe, R., Beckermann, C., Hardin, R., Carlson, K., Monroe, C.: Predicting the occurrence and effects of defects in castings. JOM 29–34 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ravi, B.: Casting simulation—best practice. In: Transaction of 58th IFC, pp. 19–29 (2010)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shamasunder, S.: To believe or not to believe results of casting simulation software. ALUCAST 62–67 (2012)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pattnaik, S., Karunakar, D.B., Jha, P.K.: Developments in investment casting process—a review. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 212, 2332–2348 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ravi, B.: Casting simulation and optimization: benefits, bottlenecks, and best practices. Technical Paper for Indian Foundry J., Special Issue 1–12 (2008)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chakaraverthi, G., Prabhakararao, P.: Application of casting simulation. Int. J. Thermal Technol. 1, 107–113 (2011)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ding, M., Song, J., Honghui, L.: Effect of pouring temperature on typical structure of thin-walled ZL105A alloy casting. Mater. Manufact. Process 29, 853–863 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations