Intraoperative Pathological Examination of Breast Lesions

  • Ekrem Yavuz
  • Sitki Tuzlali


The most important parameter for local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) to treat breast cancer is surgical margin negativity. Hence, intraoperative assessment of the surgical margins (IASM) of the breast excisions is usually requested. There are still some clinical settings in which the pathologist will also perform intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) examination. Depending on the pathologist’s experience and conditions, the method is typically either frozen section (FS) or cytology in addition to gross examination, although some molecular techniques have recently been developed for intraoperative pathological examination (IPE).


Intraoperative pathological examination Surgical margins Frozen section Sentinel lymph nodes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ekrem Yavuz
    • 1
  • Sitki Tuzlali
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of PathologyIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Tuzlali Private Pathology LaboratoryIstanbulTurkey

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