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Indirect Cosmic Ray Detection: Particle Showers in the Atmosphere

  • Maurizio Spurio
Chapter
Part of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Library book series (AAL)

Abstract

Above 1015 eV, the cosmic ray (CR) flux drops below a few tens of particles per square meter per year. It is no longer possible to detect the incident particles above the atmosphere before they interact. Direct experiments are thus replaced with ground-based instruments that cover up to several thousands of km2, the extensive air shower (EAS) arrays. A completely different experimental approach for CR measurements is used: EAS arrays are, in most cases, large area and long duration experiments studying, as accurately as possible, the nature, flux, mass, and direction of primary CRs up to the highest energies. This chapter describes: the developments of air showers initiated by primary protons and nuclei; the main shower features that characterize the electromagnetic and muonic components; some EAS array detectors using different experimental techniques; and the results obtained in knowledge of the CR flux in the energy region around the knee.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurizio Spurio
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and Astronomy, and INFNUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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