Agronanobiotechnologies to Improve the Water Quality in Irrigation Systems
Several international studies have shown that the performance of watering practices and irrigation equipment are still too low, while the water quality and availability are increasingly scarce worldwide. Consequently, there are reductions in crop yields and a waste of water resources. The objectives of this chapter are (1) discussing some bibliographic evidence regarding the availability of agronanobiotechnologies to improve the water quality and watering efficiency in agricultural irrigation systems and (2) describing some technological developments used in the design of cheap and eco-friendly filters with natural or engineering nanomaterials and organic wastes. It has been found that groundwater irrigation has grown rapidly over the past 50 years and now supplies over one-third of the world’s irrigated area. Water management emerged as a strategic resource, not only in many arid and semiarid countries, but also in humid climates, because of its capacity to support intensive land use and high-value agriculture. However, effective governance of watering water and the implementation cutting-edge technologies are critical and urgent challenges. It is required to critically examine the various approaches that different technologies have proposed for taking advantage sustainably about irrigation water and assessing their wider applicability for promoting its responsible use worldwide, while better water technologies and management are urgent and critical for productivity, equity, and sustainability.
KeywordsCrop water requirements Engineering nanomaterials Irrigation and drainage Rainfall harvesting Runoff and evaporation Low-cost irrigation techniques Nanofilter Water supply
This research was founded by “Ciencia Básica SEP-CONACyT” projects 151881 and 287225, the Sustainability of Natural Resources and Energy Programs (Cinvestav-Saltillo), and Cinvestav Zacatenco. G.M.-P., H.P.-H., G.S.-H., A.Z.-C., and V.U.-I. received grant-aided support from “Becas Conacyt.” F.F.-L., F.L.-V., E.V.-N., and S.L.-S. received grant-aided support from “Sistema Nacional de Investigadores (SNI),” México.
Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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