Techniques Utilised in Materials Growth and Materials and Device Characterisation

  • A. A. Ojo
  • W. M. Cranton
  • I. M. Dharmadasa


Further to the semiconductor material and electronic properties discussed in Chap.  2, the evaluation of semiconductor materials can be examined for structural, morphological, compositional, optical and electronic properties to facilitate research towards optimisation. This chapter describes the physics and the basic functionality of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell measurement equipment. Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques were utilised for the evaluation to facilitate research towards solar cell device performance in order to understand the factors affecting the performance of device materials.


Material characterisation Device characterisation Structural property Morphological property Optical property Compositional property Electrical property 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Ojo
    • 1
  • W. M. Cranton
    • 1
  • I. M. Dharmadasa
    • 1
  1. 1.Sheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK

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