Cross-Sectional Studies

  • Bryan Kestenbaum


  1. 5.1

    Cross-sectional studies are observational studies in which the exposure and outcome are measured at the same time.

  2. 5.2

    Cross-sectional studies can determine associations of exposures with disease prevalence.

  3. 5.3

    Cross-sectional studies cannot establish a temporal relationship between the exposure and outcome of a study, unless one direction of association is implausible.



  1. 1.
    Darius H, Pittrow D, Haberl R, et al. Are elevated homocysteine plasma levels related to peripheral arterial disease? Results from a cross-sectional study of 6880 primary care patients. Eur J Clin Investig. 2003;33(9):751–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan Kestenbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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