• Bryan Kestenbaum


Associations seen in observational studies that relate exposures to the occurrence of disease may or may not be indicative of causal relationships. The primary reason for uncertainty regarding causation in observational studies is the possibility of confounding. Conceptually, confounding occurs when other causes “stand in the way” of understanding a specific cause of interest. Specifically, confounding is present when characteristics other than the exposure of interest distort or bias the observed association of the exposure with disease.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan Kestenbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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