Enhancing the Health and Education of Deprived Children: Implications for Sustainable Development in Cameroon

  • Therese M. S. Tchombe
  • Lambert Wirdze
  • Asangha Ngufor Muki
Part of the Social Indicators Research Series book series (SINS, volume 74)


Issues related to children and youths’ access to health and education in Cameroon greatly impact their development. Unfortunately, some if not most contexts of development have excluded children in Cameroon from gaining effective access to resources providing good health and education facilities. Yet they survive and those around them do not even know much about their resilience as they cope with these challenges. A more holistic understanding of children’s health and development is important to enable society search for ways on how to help and uphold the dignity and rights of all children. All children have potentials though in most cases some may be deprived of the basic psychosocial and physical amenities to cope with life challenges. This chapter addresses culturally relevant social support services, challenges faced by the government in the implementation of the SDGs related to health and education, challenges for deprived children and addressing challenges using Mutual Reciprocity as a strategy that emphasizes children’s capacity to manage, and direct their access to health and education facilities through their socio-cognitive processes. Socio-cognitive process is illustrative of mind theory on how children in difficult situations express and harness their thoughts, feelings and actions based on their perceptions. The expression of the theory is seen in the processes employed to address emerging life challenges.


Mutual reciprocity Deprived children Exclusion Health Education Sustainable development Transformative learning Inequity Gender disparity 


  1. ADIN., Commonwealth Foundation., African Monitor. (2016). Cameroon Civil Society. Engagement Charter for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
  2. Amin, A., & Dubois, J. L. (1999). A 1999 update of the Cameroon poverty profile. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  3. Arbeiter, S., & Hartley, S. (2002). Teachers’ and pupils’ experiences of integrated education in Uganda. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 49(1), 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asangha, M. N. (2015). Peer group activities and resilient identity among mid adolescents (15–17 years old): Case of Mbengwi sub division. The African Journal of Special Education, 3(1), 157–164.Google Scholar
  5. Barón, E. V., & Melton, R. J. (2010). Health promotion and early childhood development: Some emerging global research issues. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  6. Child, Youth & Family Development (CYFD). Annual Report, (2004 & 2005). Retrieved March 11, 2011., from
  7. Davis, A. (2000) Transport versus service provision: A sustainable livelihoods profile of Cameroon. Retrieved on March 16, 2011, from
  8. Fomba. (2011). Community role/engagement in vocational competence development. In A. B. Nsamenang & M. T. Tchombe (Eds.), Handbook of African educational theories and practices: A generative teacher education curriculum (pp. 518–528). Bamenda: HDRC.Google Scholar
  9. Institute of Statistics and ICF Macro. (2004). Cameroon demographic health survey 2004. Calverton: NIS and ICF Metro.Google Scholar
  10. International Children’s Awareness (ICA). (2011). Schooling in Cameroon.
  11. Mbanya, D., Sama, M., & Tchounwou, P. (2008). Current status of HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: How effective are control strategies? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 5, 378–383. Scholar
  12. Measure Evaluation. (2017). National health strategy. University of North Carolina.Google Scholar
  13. Ministry of Public Health. (2009a). Projet de developpement s systeme d’information sanitaire (2010–2012). Ministry of Public health Cameroon. Retrieved from
  14. Ministry of Public Health. (2009b). Stratégie Sectorielle de la Santé 2001–2015. Ministry of Public Health Government. Retrieved March 4, 2014, from
  15. National AIDS Control Committee. (2010). The impact of HIV and AIDS in Cameroon through 2020, pp. 1–40.Google Scholar
  16. Nsagha, D. S., Ngowe, N. M., Nguedia, J. C. A., & Longdoh, N. A. (2014). A public health model and framework to mitigate the impact of orphans and vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. World Journal of AIDS, 4, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tchombe, T. M. S. (1994). Access of girls to basic education in Cameroon. Dakar: UNESCO Regional Office.Google Scholar
  18. Tchombe, T. M. (2011). Cultural strategies for cognitive enrichment in learning among the Bamiléké of west region of Cameroon. In A. B. Nsamenang & M. T. Tchombe (Eds.), Handbook of African educational theories and practices: A generative teacher education curriculum (pp. 205–216). Bamenda: HDRC.Google Scholar
  19. Tchombe, T. M. (2014). Inclusion in educational institutions in Africa; the preparedness of educators: The case of Cameroon. Limbe: Design House.Google Scholar
  20. Tchombe, M. T. (2017). Theories and values as antecedents for inclusive education practices. African Journal of Special Education, 2(4), 21–45.Google Scholar
  21. Tchombe, T. M. S., et al. (2001). Street children in Cameroon, problems and perspectives. Journal of Psychology in Africa, South of the Sahara, the Caribbean and Afro-Latin America, II(2), 101–123.Google Scholar
  22. UNESCO. (2010). EFA global monitoring report 2010. UNESCO-UIS (2005) Children Out of School: Measuring Exclusion from Primary Education.Google Scholar
  23. UNESCO. (2016). Cameroon | UNESCO UIS – UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
  24. UNICEF, UNAIDS and the Future Group. (2006). National responses to orphans and other children in sub-Saharan Africa—The OVC Programme Effort Index 2004, September; and Demographic and Health Surveys.Google Scholar
  25. United Nations. (2014). National Consultation for the Implementation of Post-2015 Development Agenda at Local Level. UN Systems in Cameroon.Google Scholar
  26. WHO. (2009). Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995–2005. (WHO Global Database on Vitamin A Deficiency). Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  27. WHO. (2010). Cameroon fact sheet. AHWO. Retrieved from htttp://
  28. WHO. (2011). Global response: Epidemic update and health sector progress towards Universal Access 2011.Google Scholar
  29. WHO. (2016). Public financing for health in Africa: From Abuja to the SDGs. Geneva: WHO Press.Google Scholar
  30. World Bank. (2013a). Cameroon economic update, July 2013: Towards greater equity, A special focus on health. Washington, DC. © World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
  31. World Bank (2013b). Better access to health care for all Cameroonians. Cameroon Economic Update.Google Scholar
  32. World Bank. (2013c). CAMEROON – Equity and Quality for Improved Learning Project (P133338). Project Information Document (PID) Report No.: PIDA1182.Google Scholar
  33. World Bank. (2017). Education Reform Support Project (P160926): Project Information Document/Integrated Safeguards Data Sheet: (PID/ISDS) Report No: PIDISDSC20383.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Therese M. S. Tchombe
    • 1
  • Lambert Wirdze
    • 1
  • Asangha Ngufor Muki
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BueaBueaCameroon

Personalised recommendations