Advertisement

Therapeutic Hypothermia in the Pediatric ICU

  • Jessica S. Wallisch
  • Ericka L. Fink
Chapter

Abstract

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a complex therapy that has been shown to be robustly neuroprotective in experimental models of various neurologic conditions but has thus far been incompletely translated into patient care. Fever exacerbates neurologic injury and can contribute to worse patient outcomes. Patient temperature following neurologic insults has therefore become a vital sign to be continuously monitored and regulated. Targeted temperature management (TTM) encompasses both TH and the active prevention of fever (controlled normothermia). In this article, key literature is reviewed with a focus on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, common situations associated with high morbidity and mortality in which clinicians are charged with the difficult task of making management decisions when the evidence is less than clear.

Keywords

Cardiac arrest Hypothermia Neurological outcome Targeted temperature management Monitoring Traumatic brain injury 

References

  1. 1.
    Fink EL, Kochanek PM, Tasker RC, Beca J, Bell MJ, Clark RS, Hutchison J, Vavilala MS, Fabio A, Angus DC, et al. International survey of critically ill children with acute neurologic insults: the prevalence of acute critical neurological disease in children: a global epidemiological assessment study. Pediatr Crit Care. 2017;18(4):330–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Au AK, Carcillo JA, Clark RS, Bell MJ. Brain injuries and neurological system failure are the most common proximate causes of death in children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatr Crit Care. 2011;12(5):566–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosomoff HL, Holaday DA. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermia. Am J Phys. 1954;179(1):85–8.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Globus MY, Alonso O, Dietrich WD, Busto R, Ginsberg MD. Glutamate release and free radical production following brain injury: effects of posttraumatic hypothermia. J Neurochem. 1995;65(4):1704–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jiang JY, Liang YM, Luo QZ, Zhu C. Effect of mild hypothermia on brain dialysate lactate after fluid percussion brain injury in rodents. Neurosurgery. 2004;54(3):713–7. discussion 717-718CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koizumi H, Fujisawa H, Ito H, Maekawa T, Di X, Bullock R. Effects of mild hypothermia on cerebral blood flow-independent changes in cortical extracellular levels of amino acids following contusion trauma in the rat. Brain Res. 1997;747(2):304–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baker CJ, Fiore AJ, Frazzini VI, Choudhri TF, Zubay GP, Solomon RA. Intraischemic hypothermia decreases the release of glutamate in the cores of permanent focal cerebral infarcts. Neurosurgery. 1995;36(5):994–1001; discussion 1001–1002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pu J, Niu X, Zhao J. Excitatory amino acid changes in the brains of rhesus monkeys following selective cerebral deep hypothermia and blood flow occlusion. Neural Regen Res. 2013;8(2):143–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wagner AK, Bayir H, Ren D, Puccio A, Zafonte RD, Kochanek PM. Relationships between cerebrospinal fluid markers of excitotoxicity, ischemia, and oxidative damage after severe TBI: the impact of gender, age, and hypothermia. J Neurotrauma. 2004;21(2):125–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Warren DE, Bickler PE, Clark JP, Gregersen M, Brosnan H, McKleroy W, Gabatto P. Hypothermia and rewarming injury in hippocampal neurons involve intracellular Ca2+ and glutamate excitotoxicity. Neuroscience. 2012;207:316–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lotocki G, de Rivero Vaccari JP, Perez ER, Alonso OF, Curbelo K, Keane RW, Dietrich WD. Therapeutic hypothermia modulates TNFR1 signaling in the traumatized brain via early transient activation of the JNK pathway and suppression of XIAP cleavage. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24(8):2283–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhou T, Liang Y, Jiang L, Yu T, Zeng C, Tao E. Mild hypothermia protects against oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis via the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in hippocampal neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;486(4):1005–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhou T, Lin H, Jiang L, Yu T, Zeng C, Liu J, Yang Z. Mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation injury through inhibiting caspase-3 activation. Cryobiology. 2018;80:55–61.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buttram SD, Wisniewski SR, Jackson EK, Adelson PD, Feldman K, Bayir H, Berger RP, Clark RS, Kochanek PM. Multiplex assessment of cytokine and chemokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid following severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: effects of moderate hypothermia. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24(11):1707–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bramlett HM, Dietrich WD, Green EJ, Busto R. Chronic histopathological consequences of fluid-percussion brain injury in rats: effects of post-traumatic hypothermia. Acta Neuropathol. 1997;93(2):190–9.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bramlett HM, Green EJ, Dietrich WD, Busto R, Globus MY, Ginsberg MD. Posttraumatic brain hypothermia provides protection from sensorimotor and cognitive behavioral deficits. J Neurotrauma. 1995;12(3):289–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chatzipanteli K, Alonso OF, Kraydieh S, Dietrich WD. Importance of posttraumatic hypothermia and hyperthermia on the inflammatory response after fluid percussion brain injury: biochemical and immunocytochemical studies. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2000;20(3):531–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dietrich WD, Alonso O, Busto R, Globus MY, Ginsberg MD. Post-traumatic brain hypothermia reduces histopathological damage following concussive brain injury in the rat. Acta Neuropathol. 1994;87(3):250–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dixon CE, Markgraf CG, Angileri F, Pike BR, Wolfson B, Newcomb JK, Bismar MM, Blanco AJ, Clifton GL, Hayes RL. Protective effects of moderate hypothermia on behavioral deficits but not necrotic cavitation following cortical impact injury in the rat. J Neurotrauma. 1998;15(2):95–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kinoshita K, Chatzipanteli iK, Vitarbo E, Truettner JS, Alonso OF, Dietrich WD. Interleukin-1beta messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels after fluid-percussion brain injury in rats: importance of injury severity and brain temperature. Neurosurgery. 2002;51(1):195–203; discussion 203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lu XC, Shear DA, Deng-Bryant Y, Leung LY, Wei G, Chen Z, Tortella FC. Comprehensive evaluation of neuroprotection achieved by extended selective brain cooling therapy in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2016;6(1):30–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rocha-Ferreira E, Kelen D, Faulkner S, Broad KD, Chandrasekaran M, Kerenyi A, Kato T, Bainbridge A, Golay X, Sullivan M, et al. Systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine status following therapeutic hypothermia in a piglet hypoxia-ischemia model. J Neuroinflammation. 2017;14(1):44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sterz F, Safar P, Tisherman S, Radovsky A, Kuboyama K, Oku K. Mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves outcome after prolonged cardiac arrest in dogs. Crit Care Med. 1991;19(3):379–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vitarbo EA, Chatzipanteli K, Kinoshita K, Truettner JS, Alonso OF, Dietrich WD. Tumor necrosis factor alpha expression and protein levels after fluid percussion injury in rats: the effect of injury severity and brain temperature. Neurosurgery. 2004;55(2):416–24; discussion 424–415.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dietrich WD, Bramlett HM. Therapeutic hypothermia and targeted temperature management in traumatic brain injury: clinical challenges for successful translation. Brain Res. 2016;1640(Pt A):94–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bao L, Chen D, Ding L, Ling W, Xu F. Fever burden is an independent predictor for prognosis of traumatic brain injury. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e90956.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grossestreuer AV, Gaieski DF, Donnino MW, Wiebe DJ, Abella BS. Magnitude of temperature elevation is associated with neurologic and survival outcomes in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients with postrewarming pyrexia. J Crit Care. 2017;38:78–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Heindl UT, Laub MC. Outcome of persistent vegetative state following hypoxic or traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents. Neuropediatrics. 1996;27(2):94–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hifumi T, Kuroda Y, Kawakita K, Yamashita S, Oda Y, Dohi K, Maekawa T. Fever control management is preferable to mild therapeutic hypothermia in traumatic brain injury patients with abbreviated injury scale 3–4: a multi-center, randomized controlled trial. J Neurotrauma. 2016;33(11):1047–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hinson HE, Rowell S, Morris C, Lin AL, Schreiber MA. Early fever after trauma: does it matter? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018;84(1):19–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nielsen N, Wetterslev J, Cronberg T, Erlinge D, Gasche Y, Hassager C, Horn J, Hovdenes J, Kjaergaard J, Kuiper M, et al. Targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(23):2197–206. Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Puccio AM, Fischer MR, Jankowitz BT, Yonas H, Darby JM, Okonkwo DO. Induced normothermia attenuates intracranial hypertension and reduces fever burden after severe traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit Care. 2009;11(1):82–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rincon F, Hunter K, Schorr C, Dellinger RP, Zanotti-Cavazzoni S. The epidemiology of spontaneous fever and hypothermia on admission of brain injury patients to intensive care units: a multicenter cohort study. J Neurosurg. 2014;121(4):950–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Suz P, Vavilala MS, Souter M, Muangman S, Lam AM. Clinical features of fever associated with poor outcome in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2006;18(1):5–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Marion DW, Obrist WD, Carlier PM, Penrod LE, Darby JM. The use of moderate therapeutic hypothermia for patients with severe head injuries: a preliminary report. J Neurosurg. 1993;79(3):354–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marion DW, Penrod LE, Kelsey SF, Obrist WD, Kochanek PM, Palmer AM, Wisniewski SR, DeKosky ST. Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(8):540–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Adelson PD, Ragheb J, Kanev P, Brockmeyer D, Beers SR, Brown SD, Cassidy LD, Chang Y, Levin H. Phase II clinical trial of moderate hypothermia after severe traumatic brain injury in children. Neurosurgery. 2005;56(4):740–54; discussion 740–754.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Adelson PD, Wisniewski SR, Beca J, Brown SD, Bell M, Muizelaar JP, Okada P, Beers SR, Balasubramani GK, Hirtz D, et al. Comparison of hypothermia and normothermia after severe traumatic brain injury in children (Cool Kids): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(6):546–53. Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Beca J, McSharry B, Erickson S, Yung M, Schibler A, Slater A, Wilkins B, Singhal A, Williams G, Sherring C, et al. Hypothermia for traumatic brain injury in children-a phase II randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med. 2015;43(7):1458–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hutchison JS, Ward RE, Lacroix J, Hebert PC, Barnes MA, Bohn DJ, Dirks PB, Doucette S, Fergusson D, Gottesman R, et al. Hypothermia therapy after traumatic brain injury in children. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(23):2447–56. Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kochanek PM, Carney N, Adelson PD, Ashwal S, Bell MJ, Bratton S, Carson S, Chesnut RM, Ghajar J, Goldstein B, et al. Guidelines for the acute medical management of severe traumatic brain injury in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13(Suppl 1):S1–82. Second edition.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Berger RP, Adelson PD, Richichi R, Kochanek PM. Serum biomarkers after traumatic and hypoxemic brain injuries: insight into the biochemical response of the pediatric brain to inflicted brain injury. Dev Neurosci. 2006;28(4–5):327–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bell MJ, Adelson PD, Hutchison JS, Kochanek PM, Tasker RC, Vavilala MS, Beers SR, Fabio A, Kelsey SF, Wisniewski SR, et al. Differences in medical therapy goals for children with severe traumatic brain injury-an international study. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14(8):811–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jacobs SE, Berg M, Hunt R, Tarnow-Mordi WO, Inder TE, Davis PG. Cooling for newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD003311.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Arrich J, Holzer M, Havel C, Mullner M, Herkner H. Hypothermia for neuroprotection in adults after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;2:CD004128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Doherty DR, Parshuram CS, Gaboury I, Hoskote A, Lacroix J, Tucci M, Joffe A, Choong K, Farrell R, Bohn DJ, et al. Hypothermia therapy after pediatric cardiac arrest. Circulation. 2009;119(11):1492–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fink EL, Clark RS, Kochanek PM, Bell MJ, Watson RS. A tertiary care center’s experience with therapeutic hypothermia after pediatric cardiac arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010;11(1):66–74.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lin JJ, Hsia SH, Wang HS, Chiang MC, Lin KL. Therapeutic hypothermia associated with increased survival after resuscitation in children. Pediatr Neurol. 2013;48(4):285–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Moler FW, Silverstein FS, Holubkov R, Slomine BS, Christensen JR, Nadkarni VM, Meert KL, Clark AE, Browning B, Pemberton VL, et al. Therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(20):1898–908. Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scholefield BR, Morris KP, Duncan HP, Perkins GD, Gosney J, Skone R, Sanders V, Gao F. Evolution, safety and efficacy of targeted temperature management after pediatric cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2015;92:19–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Moler FW, Silverstein FS, Holubkov R, Slomine BS, Christensen JR, Nadkarni VM, Meert KL, Browning B, Pemberton VL, Page K, et al. Therapeutic hypothermia after in-hospital cardiac arrest in children. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(4):318–29. Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Arrich J, Herkner H. Hypothermia after in-hospital cardiac arrest in children. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(17):1695.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wu MJ, Guo J, Yu H. Hypothermia after in-hospital cardiac arrest in children. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(17):1695.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fink EL, Clark RSB, Berger RP, Fabio A, Angus DC, Watson RS, Gianakas JJ, Panigrahy A, Callaway CW, Bell MJ, et al. 24 vs. 72 hours of hypothermia for pediatric cardiac arrest: A pilot, randomized controlled trial. Resuscitation. 2018;126:14–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fink EL, Berger RP, Clark RS, Watson RS, Angus DC, Richichi R, Panigrahy A, Callaway CW, Bell MJ, Kochanek PM. Serum biomarkers of brain injury to classify outcome after pediatric cardiac arrest*. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(3):664–74.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Topjian AA, Lin R, Morris MC, Ichord R, Drott H, Bayer CR, Helfaer MA, Nadkarni V. Neuron-specific enolase and S-100B are associated with neurologic outcome after pediatric cardiac arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10(4):479–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Maconochie IK, de Caen AR, Aickin R, Atkins DL, Biarent D, Guerguerian AM, Kleinman ME, Kloeck DA, Meaney PA, Nadkarni VM, et al. Part 6: pediatric basic life support and pediatric advanced life support: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation. 2015;95:e147–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Geocadin RG, Wijdicks E, Armstrong MJ, Damian M, Mayer SA, Ornato JP, Rabinstein A, Suarez JI, Torbey MT, Dubinsky RM, et al. Practice guideline summary: reducing brain injury following cardiopulmonary resuscitation: report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2017;88(22):2141–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Guilliams K, Rosen M, Buttram S, Zempel J, Pineda J, Miller B, Shoykhet M. Hypothermia for pediatric refractory status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 2013;54(9):1586–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lin JJ, Lin KL, Hsia SH, Wang HS, Group CS. Therapeutic hypothermia for febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome in two patients. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;47(6):448–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Orlowski JP, Erenberg G, Lueders H, Cruse RP. Hypothermia and barbiturate coma for refractory status epilepticus. Crit Care Med. 1984;12(4):367–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Buttram SD, Au AK, Koch J, Lidsky K, McBain K, O'Brien N, Zielinski BA, Bell MJ. Feasibility study evaluating therapeutic hypothermia for refractory status epilepticus in children. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2015;5(4):198–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Legriel S, Lemiale V, Schenck M, Chelly J, Laurent V, Daviaud F, Srairi M, Hamdi A, Geri G, Rossignol T, et al. Hypothermia for neuroprotection in convulsive status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(25):2457–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Montaldo P, Oliveira V, Lally PJ, Chaban B, Atreja G, Kirmi O, Thayyil S. Therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal cervical spine injury. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2016;101(5):F468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tracy B, Armola R, Micham J. The “cold cord”: a review of therapeutic hypothermia for traumatic spinal cord injuries. Am J Crit Care. 2015;24(6):540–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Systemic Hypothermia in Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02991690
  67. 67.
    Cariou A, Payen JF, Asehnoune K, Audibert G, Botte A, Brissaud O, Debaty G, Deltour S, Deye N, Engrand N, et al. Targeted temperature management in the ICU: guidelines from a French expert panel. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2018;80:55–61.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hong JM, Lee JS, Song HJ, Jeong HS, Choi HA, Lee K. Therapeutic hypothermia after recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2014;45(1):134–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Geurts M, Petersson J, Brizzi M, Olsson-Hau S, Luijckx GJ, Algra A, Dippel DW, Kappelle LJ, van der Worp HB. COOLIST (Cooling for Ischemic Stroke Trial): a multicenter, open, randomized, phase II, clinical trial. Stroke. 2017;48(1):219–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lyden P, Hemmen T, Grotta J, Rapp K, Ernstrom K, Rzesiewicz T, Parker S, Concha M, Hussain S, Agarwal S, et al. Results of the ICTuS 2 Trial (Intravascular Cooling in the Treatment of Stroke 2). Stroke. 2016;47(12):2888–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Niven DJ, Gaudet JE, Laupland KB, Mrklas KJ, Roberts DJ, Stelfox HT. Accuracy of peripheral thermometers for estimating temperature: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(10):768–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Madden LK, Hill M, May TL, Human T, Guanci MM, Jacobi J, Moreda MV, Badjatia N. The implementation of targeted temperature management: an evidence-based guideline from the Neurocritical Care Society. Neurocrit Care. 2017;27(3):468–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Akula VP, Joe P, Thusu K, Davis AS, Tamaresis JS, Kim S, Shimotake TK, Butler S, Honold J, Kuzniewicz M, et al. A randomized clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia mode during transport for neonatal encephalopathy. J Pediatr. 2015;166(4):856–61.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Heard KJ, Peberdy MA, Sayre MR, Sanders A, Geocadin RG, Dixon SR, Larabee TM, Hiller K, Fiorello A, Paradis NA, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing the Arctic Sun to standard cooling for induction of hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2010;81(1):9–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hoedemaekers CW, Ezzahti M, Gerritsen A, van der Hoeven JG. Comparison of cooling methods to induce and maintain normo- and hypothermia in intensive care unit patients: a prospective intervention study. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):R91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Glover GW, Thomas RM, Vamvakas G, Al-Subaie N, Cranshaw J, Walden A, Wise MP, Ostermann M, Thomas-Jones E, Cronberg T, et al. Intravascular versus surface cooling for targeted temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest - an analysis of the TTM trial data. Crit Care. 2016;20(1):381.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sonder P, Janssens GN, Beishuizen A, Henry CL, Rittenberger JC, Callaway CW, Dezfulian C, Polderman KH. Efficacy of different cooling technologies for therapeutic temperature management: a prospective intervention study. Resuscitation. 2017;124:14–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hegazy AF, Lapierre DM, Butler R, Martin J, Althenayan E. The esophageal cooling device: a new temperature control tool in the intensivist's arsenal. Heart Lung. 2017;46(3):143–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Springborg JB, Springborg KK, Romner B. First clinical experience with intranasal cooling for hyperthermia in brain-injured patients. Neurocrit Care. 2013;18(3):400–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lu X, Ma L, Sun S, Xu J, Zhu C, Tang W. The effects of the rate of postresuscitation rewarming following hypothermia on outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rat model. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(2):e106–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wang B, Armstrong JS, Lee JH, Bhalala U, Kulikowicz E, Zhang H, Reyes M, Moy N, Spicer D, Zhu J, et al. Rewarming from therapeutic hypothermia induces cortical neuron apoptosis in a swine model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015;35(5):781–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Koizumi H, Suehiro E, Fujiyama Y, Yoneda H, Ishihara H, Nomura S, Fujii M, Suzuki M. Effects of brain temperature on cerebrovascular autoregulation during the acute stage of severe traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016;122:193–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    McIntyre LA, Fergusson DA, Hebert PC, Moher D, Hutchison JS. Prolonged therapeutic hypothermia after traumatic brain injury in adults: a systematic review. JAMA. 2003;289(22):2992–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Naito H, Isotani E, Callaway CW, Hagioka S, Morimoto N. Intracranial pressure increases during rewarming period after mild therapeutic hypothermia in postcardiac arrest patients. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2016;6(4):189–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Abend NS, Topjian A, Ichord R, Herman ST, Helfaer M, Donnelly M, Nadkarni V, Dlugos DJ, Clancy RR. Electroencephalographic monitoring during hypothermia after pediatric cardiac arrest. Neurology. 2009;72(22):1931–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kim KW, Pargeon KL, Labar AS, Friedman O, Kandula PN, Labar DR. EEG characteristics in cooled and rewarmed periods in post-cardiac arrest therapeutic hypothermia patients. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2017;34(4):381–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Herman ST, Abend NS, Bleck TP, Chapman KE, Drislane FW, Emerson RG, Gerard EE, Hahn CD, Husain AM, Kaplan PW, et al. Consensus statement on continuous EEG in critically ill adults and children, part I: indications. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2015;32(2):87–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kozar M, Javorka K, Javorka M, Matasova K, Zibolen M. Changes of cardiovascular regulation during rewarming in newborns undergoing whole-body hypothermia. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2015;36(5):434–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Soeholm H, Kirkegaard H. Serum potassium changes during therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest-should it be treated? Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2012;2(1):30–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Badjatia N, Kowalski RG, Schmidt JM, Voorhees ME, Claassen J, Ostapkovich ND, Presciutti M, Connolly ES, Palestrant D, Parra A, et al. Predictors and clinical implications of shivering during therapeutic normothermia. Neurocrit Care. 2007;6(3):186–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Badjatia N, Strongilis E, Prescutti M, Fernandez L, Fernandez A, Buitrago M, Schmidt JM, Mayer SA. Metabolic benefits of surface counter warming during therapeutic temperature modulation. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(6):1893–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Choi HA, Ko SB, Presciutti M, Fernandez L, Carpenter AM, Lesch C, Gilmore E, Malhotra R, Mayer SA, Lee K, et al. Prevention of shivering during therapeutic temperature modulation: the Columbia anti-shivering protocol. Neurocrit Care. 2011;14(3):389–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Logan A, Sangkachand P, Funk M. Optimal management of shivering during therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Crit Care Nurse. 2011;31(6):e18–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Park B, Lee T, Berger K, Park SM, Choi KE, Goodsell TM, Rosengart A. Efficacy of nonpharmacological antishivering interventions: a systematic analysis. Crit Care Med. 2015;43(8):1757–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bro-Jeppesen J, Annborn M, Hassager C, Wise MP, Pelosi P, Nielsen N, Erlinge D, Wanscher M, Friberg H, Kjaergaard J. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support during targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a post hoc study of the target temperature management trial*. Crit Care Med. 2015;43(2):318–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Thomsen JH, Nielsen N, Hassager C, Wanscher M, Pehrson S, Kober L, Bro-Jeppesen J, Soholm H, Winther-Jensen M, Pellis T, et al. Bradycardia during targeted temperature management: an early marker of lower mortality and favorable neurologic outcome in comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Crit Care Med. 2016;44(2):308–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zhang W, Lu M, Zhang C, Zhang R, Ou X, Zhou J, Li Y, Kang Y. Therapeutic hypothermia increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia for perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0173006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bro-Jeppesen J, Hassager C, Wanscher M, Ostergaard M, Nielsen N, Erlinge D, Friberg H, Kober L, Kjaergaard J. Targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C and impact on systemic vascular resistance and myocardial function after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a sub-study of the target temperature management trial. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;7(5):663–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Polderman KH, Peerdeman SM, Girbes AR. Hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia induced by cooling in patients with severe head injury. J Neurosurg. 2001;94(5):697–705.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cueni-Villoz N, Devigili A, Delodder F, Cianferoni S, Feihl F, Rossetti AO, Eggimann P, Vincent JL, Taccone FS, Oddo M. Increased blood glucose variability during therapeutic hypothermia and outcome after cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(10):2225–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Raper JD, Wang HE. Urine output changes during postcardiac arrest therapeutic hypothermia. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2013;3(4):173–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Morgan ML, Anderson RJ, Ellis MA, Berl T. Mechanism of cold diuresis in the rat. Am J Phys. 1983;244(2):F210–6.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Polderman KH. Mechanisms of action, physiological effects, and complications of hypothermia. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(7 Suppl):S186–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Jeppesen AN, Kirkegaard H, Ilkjaer S, Hvas AM. Influence of temperature on thromboelastometry and platelet aggregation in cardiac arrest patients undergoing targeted temperature management. Crit Care. 2016;20(1):118.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Trabka-Zawicki A, Tomala M, Zelias A, Paszek E, Zajdel W, Stepien E, Zmudka K. Adaptation of global hemostasis to therapeutic hypothermia in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: thromboelastography study. Cardiol J. 2017;Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jacob M, Hassager C, Bro-Jeppesen J, Ostrowski SR, Thomsen JH, Wanscher M, Johansson PI, Winther-Jensen M, Kjaergaard J. The effect of targeted temperature management on coagulation parameters and bleeding events after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause. Resuscitation. 2015;96:260–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Carrick MM, Tyroch AH, Youens CA, Handley T. Subsequent development of thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy in moderate and severe head injury: support for serial laboratory examination. J Trauma. 2005;58(4):725–9; discussion 729–730.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Clifton GL, Valadka A, Zygun D, Coffey CS, Drever P, Fourwinds S, Janis LS, Wilde E, Taylor P, Harshman K, et al. Very early hypothermia induction in patients with severe brain injury (the National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia II): a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(2):131–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Stockmann H, Krannich A, Schroeder T, Storm C. Therapeutic temperature management after cardiac arrest and the risk of bleeding: systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation. 2014;85(11):1494–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wang CH, Chen NC, Tsai MS, Yu PH, Wang AY, Chang WT, Huang CH, Chen WJ. Therapeutic hypothermia and the risk of hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine. 2015;94(47):e2152.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ishikawa K, Tanaka H, Shiozaki T, Takaoka M, Ogura H, Kishi M, Shimazu T, Sugimoto H. Characteristics of infection and leukocyte count in severely head-injured patients treated with mild hypothermia. J Trauma. 2000;49(5):912–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Geurts M, Macleod MR, Kollmar R, Kremer PH, van der Worp HB. Therapeutic hypothermia and the risk of infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(2):231–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tortorici MA, Kochanek PM, Poloyac SM. Effects of hypothermia on drug disposition, metabolism, and response: a focus of hypothermia-mediated alterations on the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(9):2196–204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bjelland TW, Klepstad P, Haugen BO, Nilsen T, Salvesen O, Dale O. Concentrations of remifentanil, propofol, fentanyl, and midazolam during rewarming from therapeutic hypothermia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2014;58(6):709–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Caldwell JE, Heier T, Wright PM, Lin S, McCarthy G, Szenohradszky J, Sharma ML, Hing JP, Schroeder M, Sessler DI. Temperature-dependent pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vecuronium. Anesthesiology. 2000;92(1):84–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Empey PE, Velez de Mendizabal N, Bell MJ, Bies RR, Anderson KB, Kochanek PM, Adelson PD, Poloyac SM, Pediatric TBICHI. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases phenytoin elimination in children with traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(10):2379–87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Fukuoka N, Aibiki M, Tsukamoto T, Seki K, Morita S. Biphasic concentration change during continuous midazolam administration in brain-injured patients undergoing therapeutic moderate hypothermia. Resuscitation. 2004;60(2):225–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Schaible DH, Cupit GC, Swedlow DB, Rocci ML Jr. High-dose pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in hypothermic brain-injured children. J Pediatr. 1982;100(4):655–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Critical Care MedicineChildren’s Mercy HospitalKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Pediatrics, University of Missouri Kansas CityKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.Critical Care MedicineChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMCPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMCPittsburghUSA
  5. 5.Safar Center for Resuscitation ResearchPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations