Hypothermia Used in Medical Applications for Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Patients

  • Liang ZhuEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1097)


Despite more than 80 years of animal experiments and clinical practice, efficacy of hypothermia in improving treatment outcomes in patients suffering from cell and tissue damage caused by ischemia is still ongoing. This review will first describe the history of utilizing cooling in medical treatment, followed by chemical and biochemical mechanisms of cooling that can lead to neuroprotection often observed in animal studies and some clinical studies. The next sections will be focused on current cooling approaches/devices, as well as cooling parameters recommended by researchers and clinicians. Animal and clinical studies of implementing hypothermia to spinal cord and brain tissue injury patients are presented next. This section will review the latest outcomes of hypothermia in treating patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, cardiopulmonary surgery, and cardiac arrest, followed by a summary of available evidence regarding both demonstrated neuroprotection and potential risks of hypothermia. Contributions from bioengineers to the field of hypothermia in medical treatment will be discussed in the last section of this review. Overall, an accumulating body of clinical evidence along with several decades of animal research and mathematical simulations has documented that the efficacy of hypothermia is dependent on achieving a reduced temperature in the target tissue before or soon after the injury-precipitating event. Mild hypothermia with temperature reduction of several degrees Celsius is as effective as modest or deep hypothermia in providing therapeutic benefit without introducing collateral/systemic complications. It is widely demonstrated that the rewarming rate must be controlled to be lower than 0.5 °C/h to avoid mismatch between local blood perfusion and metabolism. In the past several decades, many different cooling methods and devices have been designed, tested, and used in medical treatments with mixed results. Accurately designing treatment protocols to achieve specific cooling outcomes requires collaboration among engineers, researchers, and clinicians. Although this problem is quite challenging, it presents a major opportunity for bioengineers to create methods and devices that quickly and safely produce hypothermia in targeted tissue regions without interfering with routine medical treatment.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Maryland Baltimore CountyBaltimoreUSA

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