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The Role of Endothelial Surface Glycocalyx in Mechanosensing and Transduction

  • Ye Zeng
  • X. Frank Zhang
  • Bingmei M. Fu
  • John M. Tarbell
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1097)

Abstract

The endothelial cells (ECs) forming the inner wall of every blood vessel are constantly exposed to the mechanical forces generated by blood flow. The EC responses to these hemodynamic forces play a critical role in the homeostasis of the circulatory system. A variety of mechanosensors and transducers, locating on the EC surface, intra- and trans-EC membrane, and within the EC cytoskeleton, have thus been identified to ensure proper functions of ECs. Among them, the most recent candidate is the endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG), which is a matrix-like thin layer covering the luminal surface of the EC. It consists of various proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and plasma proteins and is close to other prominent EC mechanosensors and transducers. This chapter summarizes the ESG composition, thickness, and structure observed by different labeling and visualization techniques and in different types of vessels. It also presents the literature in determining the ESG mechanical properties by atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers. The molecular mechanisms by which the ESG plays the role in EC mechanosensing and transduction are described as well as the ESG remodeling by shear stress, the actin cytoskeleton, the membrane rafts, the angiogenic factors, and the sphingosine-1-phosphate.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant no. 11402153(YZ)], National Institutes of Health [grant nos. SC1CA153325 (BF), RO1HL094889 (JT, BF), and RO1CA204949 (JT)].

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ye Zeng
    • 1
  • X. Frank Zhang
    • 2
  • Bingmei M. Fu
    • 3
  • John M. Tarbell
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Biomedical Engineering, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic MedicineSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering and MechanicsLehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical EngineeringThe City College of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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