• Stephen Handel


Looking, listening, peeking, eavesdropping, fingering, shaking, and grasping are all actions that give us energy at the receptors, but by themselves do not ultimately specify a particular object. Many different objects could have produced those same sensations. Handel argues that all senses make use of the same principles and physiological processes to split the sensations into the part that yields information about real objects and the part that yields information about the non-predictable parts of the background. The real objects undergo predictable transformations and the interacting local to global physiological organizations are tuned to pick those up in spite of sensory or cognitive limitations. Summing up, Handel compares the myths about business decision-making to perceptual decision-making.


  1. Bassett, D. S., & Gazzaniga, M. S. (2011). Understanding complexity in the human brain. Trends in Cognitive Science, 15(5), 200–209. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brincat, S. L., Siegel, M., von Nicolai, C., & Miller, E. K. (2018). Gradual progression from sensory to task-related processing in cerebral cortex. Proceceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(30), E7202–E7211. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bullmore, E. T., & Bassett, D. S. (2011). Brain graphs: Graphical models of the human brain connectome. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 113–140. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Burwick, T. (2014). The binding problem. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 5, 305–315. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Feldman, J. (2003). What is a visual object? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(6), 252–256. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Felin, T., Koenderink, J., & Krueger, J. I. (2017). Rationality, perception and the all-seeing eye. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 1040–1059. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frangeul, L., Pouchelon, G., Telley, L., Lefort, S., Luscher, C., & Jabaudon, D. (2016). A cross-modal genetic framework for the development and plasticity of sensory pathways. Nature, 538, 96–98. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Handel, S. (2006). Perceptual coherence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hubel, D. H., & Weisel, T. N. (1962). Receptive fields, binocular interaction, and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex. Journal of Physiology (London), 160, 106–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Park, H.-J., & Friston, K. (2013). Structural and functional brain networks: From connections to cognition. Science, 342(6158), 577–587. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pizlo, Z. (2001). Perception viewed as an inverse problem. Vision Research, 41, 3145–3161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Roberto, M. (2009). The art of decision making, The great courses. Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company.Google Scholar
  13. van den Heuvel, M. P., & Sporns, O. (2013). Network hubs in the human brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(12), 683–696. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Handel
    • 1
  1. 1.PsychologyUniversity of Tennessee, KnoxvilleKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations