Gendered Transnationalism: Singapore
This chapter researches the lives of 38 returned Chinese Singaporean transnational migrants to crystallize gender differences in their transnational (dis)embeddedness. The chapter considers that the Chinese Singaporean men, more often than the women, had moved to live in other societies in Asia, and that both mostly had lived in the West. This crystallization of the transnational (dis)embeddedness of the male and female participants—who often were repeat migrants—yields that the women, more often than the men, experienced incongruities in their transnational education contexts, preferring a western education over education in Singapore, whereas the men more frequently preferred a Singaporean education over a western one. Next, this chapters shows that the (temporarily) returned Chinese Singaporeans’ transnational work contexts were gendered, with the Chinese Singaporean women often having liked aspects of their past work contexts in the West, and with the Chinese Singaporean men frequently assessing that they had not been able to adapt well to work contexts in other societies in Asia. Furthermore, the chapter finds that the women, more often than the men, adapted to western definitions of appropriate practices of family socialities, and experienced higher dis-embeddedness in transnational family contexts. In terms of transnational friendships/lifestyle socialities, the women experienced more embeddedness than the men in these contexts.
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