Introduction to Part II: Drivers and Their Risks for Ecosystems, Their Functions, and Services

  • Cornelia BaesslerEmail author
  • Stefan Klotz


The first framework for characterizing human impact on biological systems was developed to study biotic responses of different human impact factors like air, water and soil pollution, and general land use.


Biodiversity Drivers Ecosystem functions Ecosystem response Ecosystem services Stressors 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community EcologyHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZHalleGermany

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