Risk and Uncertainty as Sources of Economic Value of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

  • Bartosz BartkowskiEmail author
  • Bernd Hansjürgens


The future is uncertain. Given our seriously limited clairvoyant abilities, this is a trivial fact, which applies to all domains of human life – including our interactions with ecosystems. In the context of ecosystems and the goods and services they provide to us, this uncertainty about the future has multiple facets.


Biodiversity Economic valuation Ignorance Insurance value Option value Risk Uncertainty 



This contribution draws upon results of Bartkowski [4].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZLeipzigGermany

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