Advertisement

Climate Regulation by Diverse Urban Green Spaces: Risks and Opportunities Related to Climate and Land Use Change

  • Sonja KnappEmail author
  • Madhumitha Jaganmohan
  • Nina Schwarz
Chapter

Abstract

Climate regulation provided by urban trees and green spaces is one of the main ecosystem services for urban areas. Urban green spaces are increasingly threatened by urbanization, and changing temperatures and precipitation due to climate change might impair the ability of trees to cool their surroundings. Thus urban planning is faced with the challenge of improving climate regulation in the face of urbanization and climate change. How should the urban green spaces be designed to meet this challenge? Does climate regulation improve with higher tree diversity, or is a single tree species sufficient?

Keywords

Biodiversity Climate change Climate regulation Ecosystem service Green spaces Urban Trade-off Trees 

References

  1. 1.
    Haase D, Larondelle N, Andersson E, Artmann M, Borgstrom S, Breuste J, et al. A quantitative review of urban ecosystem service assessments: concepts, models, and implementation. Ambio. 2014;43(4):413–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oke TR. The energetic basis of the urban heat-island. Q J Roy Meteorol Soc. 1982;108(455):1–24.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Cities and biodiversity outlook. Montreal; 2012. https://www.cbd.int/doc/health/cbo-action-policy-en.pdf. Accessed 17 Oct 2017.
  4. 4.
    Jaganmohan M, Knapp S, Buchmann CM, Schwarz N. The bigger, the better? The influence of urban green space design on cooling effects for residential areas. J Environ Qual. 2016;45(1):134–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bonan GB. The microclimates of a suburban Colorado (USA) landscape and implications for planning and design. Landsc Urban Plan. 2000;49(3–4):97–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leuzinger S, Vogt R, Körner C. Tree surface temperature in an urban environment. Agric For Meteorol. 2010;150(1):56–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schwarz N, Moretti M, Bugalho MN, Davies Z, Haase D, Hack J, et al. Identifying knowledge gaps and ways forward for understanding biodiversity-ecosystem services relationships in urban areas. Ecosys Servi. 2017;27:161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jaganmohan M. Cooling effects of urban green spaces on residential neighbourhoods: a review and empirical study. PhD thesis: Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg; 2018.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Seto KC, Fragkias M, Güneralp B, Reilly MK. A meta-analysis of global urban land expansion. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seto KC, Güneralp B, Hutyra LR. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16083–16088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moser A, Rotzer T, Pauleit S, Pretzsch H. The urban environment can modify drought stress of small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Forests. 2016;7(3):71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ordóñez C, Duinker PN. Assessing the vulnerability of urban forests to climate change. Environ Rev. 2014;22(3):311–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Knapp S, Kühn I, Stolle J, Klotz S. Changes in the functional composition of a Central European urban flora over three centuries. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst. 2010;12:235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nadrowski K, Wirth C, Scherer-Lorenzen M. Is forest diversity driving ecosystem function and service? Curr Opin Environ Sustain. 2010;2(1–2):75–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Belward AS, Estes JE, Kline KD. The IGBP-DIS global 1-km land-cover data set DISCover: a project overview. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens. 1999;65(9):1013–20.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    United Nations. In: Department of Economic and Social Affairs PD, editor. World urbanization prospects: the 2014 revision, highlights. New York, NY: United Nations; 2015.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration. GISS surface temperature analysis. http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/stdata/. Accessed 24 May 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonja Knapp
    • 1
    Email author
  • Madhumitha Jaganmohan
    • 2
  • Nina Schwarz
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Community EcologyHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZHalle (Saale)Germany
  2. 2.Department of Computational Landscape EcologyHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZLeipzigGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC)University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations