Advertisement

Foreign Ownership, Local Dynamics: The Media System in Kenya

  • Muhammad Jameel Yusha’u
Chapter

Abstract

The media system in Kenya is the subject of this chapter. Kenya has a unique media landscape in Africa with strong foreign ownership from colonial to postcolonial times. Indians, Europeans and now politicians dominate media ownership in Kenya with consequences on press freedom and media autonomy. The chapter discusses the history of Kenya which has strong bearing on the media system. Such influence includes the Mau Mau uprising, the one party state under Jomo Kenyatta and Daniel Arap Moi, and the role played by the media in returning the country to the era of multiparty elections. The influence of ethnicity and regionalism in Kenyan politics and post-election violence are among the issues discussed. This historical context is then analysed within the media systems theory proposed by Hallin and Mancini (Comparing media systems: three models of media and politics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, 2004). The discussion concludes that the Kenyan media system is closer to the Polarised Pluralist Model, but with strong features of the Liberal Model due to private ownership of the media.

References

  1. Abdi, J., & Deane, J. (2008). The 2007 General Elections in Kenya and Its Aftermath: The Role of Local Language Media. Press/Politics, 13(3), 319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreassen, B. A., & Barasa, T. (2011). Political Transition, Governance and Human Rights in Kenya: Political Context Study. RIPOCA Research Notes. Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, Oslo. Retrieved May 11, 2018, Available at https://www.jus.uio.no/smr/english/research/projects/ripoca/rn/6-2011.pdf
  3. Badgikan, B. (2004). The New Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, S. (2010). What’s Wrong with Media Monopolies? Lesson from History and a New Approach to Media Ownership Policy. In R. Mansell & B. Cammaerts (Eds.), Media@LSE Electronic Working Papers. Retrieved May 9, 2018, Available at http://www.lse.ac.uk/media-and-communications/assets/documents/research/working-paper-series/EWP18.pdf
  5. BBC. (2018). Kenya Profile-Timeline. Retrieved May 7, 2018, Available at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13682176
  6. Blackpast. (2018). Mau Mau (1952–1960). Online Encylopedia. Retrieved May 7, 2018, Available at http://www.blackpast.org/gah/mau-mau-1952-1960
  7. Carter, F. (1968). The Press in Kenya. International Communication Gazette, 14(2), 85–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Compaine, B. M., & Gomery, D. (2000). Who Owns the Media? Competition and Concentration in the Mass Media (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diedong Africanus, L. (2018). Political Communication in Ghana: Exploring Evolving Trends and Their Implications for National Development. In B. Mutsvairo & B. Karam (Eds.), Perspectives on Political Communication in Africa (pp. 255–268). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eklund, D. (2010). Kenyan Conflict, Post-colonial Media. Department of Political Science, Lund University. Retrieved May 8, 2018, Available at http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1607637&fileOId=1607653
  11. Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018). Swahili Language. Retrieved May 7, 2018, Available at https://www.britannica.com/topic/Swahili-language
  12. Hallin, D. C., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heath, C. W. (1992). Structural Changes in Kenya’s Broadcasting System: A Manifestation of Presidential Authoritarianism. Gazette, 37, 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (2002). Manufacturing Consent. The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  15. Independent. (2007). Kibaki ‘Stole’ Kenyan Election Through Vote-Rigging and Fraud. Retrieved May 11, 2018, Available at https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/kibaki-stole-kenyan-election-through-vote-rigging-and-fraud-772349.html
  16. Ireri, K. (2016). High Job Satisfaction Despite Low Income: A National Study of Kenyan Journalists. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 93(1), 164–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ireri, K. (2017a). A National Survey of Demographics Composition of Kenyan Journalists. Journalism, 18(2), 241–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ireri, K. (2017b). Exploring Journalism and Mass Communication Training in Kenya: A National Survey. Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, 1–15.Google Scholar
  19. KenyaTravelTips. (2018). History of Kenya from Colonial Period to Today. Retrieved May 7, 2018, Available at https://www.kenyatraveltips.com/history-of-kenya/
  20. Makinen, M., & Kuira, M. W. (2008). Social Media and Postelection Crisis in Kenya. Press/Politics, 13(3), 328–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mulama, J. (2006, May 2). World Press Freedom Day: Of Information Bills, and Schools Onbars. Inter Press Service. Retrieved from http://www.ipsnews.net/2006/05/world-pressfreedom-day-of-information-bills-and-schools-on-bars/
  22. Mazrui, A. A. (2004, July 12). The Ethics of Africa’s Governance: Rights, Rules and Relativism. Inaugural Lecture on Human Rights. Africa Legal Aid, Ghana. Retrieved May 1, 2018, Available at http://www.africalegalaid.com/download/afla_lecture_series/The_Ethics_of_Africa’s_Governance_Rights_Rules_and_Relativism.pdf
  23. Odero, M. (2000). Press in Kenya: An Overview. In Media, and Performance in Kenya. Nairobi: FES.Google Scholar
  24. Odhiambo, L. O. (1991). Development Journalism in Africa: Capitulation of the Fourth Estate. Africa Media Review, 5(2), 17–30.Google Scholar
  25. Ogbondah, C. W. (1994). Press Freedom and Political Development in Africa. Africa Media Review, 8(3), 1–39.Google Scholar
  26. Ogenga, F. (2008). The Role of Media Kenyan Media in the 2007 Elections. Journal of African Elections, 7(2 (1)), 124–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Siebert, F. S., Peterson, T., & Schramm, W. (1956). Four Theories of the Press. The Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility and Soviet Communist Concepts of What the Press Should Be and Should Do. Urbana/Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  28. Somerville, K. (2011). Violence, Hate Speech and Inflammatory Broadcasting in Kenya: The Problems of Definition and Identification. Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies, 32(1), 82–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Steeves, J. (2006). Presidential Succession in Kenya. The Transition from Moi to Kibaki. Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 44(2), 211–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. The Commonwealth. (2018). Kenya-History. Retrieved May 7, 2018, Available at http://thecommonwealth.org/our-member-countries/kenya/history
  31. The Guardian. (2007). Kenyans Riot as Kibaki Declared Poll Winner. Retrieved May 11, 2018, Available at https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/dec/31/kenya.topstories3
  32. Tully, M., & Tuwei, D. (2016). We Are One Kenya: Representations of the Nation, Leadership, and De-ethnicised Identity on Reality TV. Media, Culture and Society, 38(8), 1119–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ugangu, W. (2012). Normative Media Theory and Rethinking of the Role of the Kenyan Media in Changing Social Economic Context. PhD Thesis, University of South Africa.Google Scholar
  34. Ugboajah, F. O. (1985). Media Habits of Rural and Semi-Rural (Slum) Kenya. Gazette, 36, 155–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wanyande, P. (1995). Mass Media-State Relations in Post-Colonial Kenya. Africa Media Review, 9(3), 54–75.Google Scholar
  36. Washington Post. (2007). Incumbent Declared Winner in Kenya’s Disputed Election. Retrieved May, 11, 2018, Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2007/12/30/AR2007123002506.html
  37. Yusha’u, M. J. (2010). Regional Parallelism and the Reporting of Corruption in the Nigerian Press. Journal of African Media Studies, 2(3), 353–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yusha’u, M. J. (2018). For the Attention of African Media Scholars: An Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis. In B. Mutsvairo (Ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Media and Communication Research in Africa (pp. 465–482). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Jameel Yusha’u
    • 1
  1. 1.Uni Focus AcademyKanoNigeria

Personalised recommendations