Evaluation of GERD: Symptoms and Disease Classification

  • Amber ShadaEmail author


Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are relatively common, seen in almost two-thirds of people in the United States. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, is the presence of esophageal damage accompanying reflux symptoms. Typical symptoms include heartburn and regurgitation. Atypical symptoms include chronic sore throat, cough, hoarseness, laryngitis, asthma, dysphagia, excessive salivation, globus, and dental erosions. GERD can be characterized as erosive or nonerosive esophagitis based upon the presence or absence of mucosal breaks seen on endoscopy. Erosive esophagitis is more likely to lead to complications including stricture, ulcers, and metaplasia, Barrett’s esophagus, and adenocarcinoma in the distal esophagus, as a result of full-thickness mucosal injury.


Gastroesophageal reflux Esophagitis Heartburn Regurgitation Atypical symptoms Erosive Nonerosive 


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© SAGES 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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