This chapter portrays two distinct facets of active opposition to the Shah around the turn of the decade of sixties. A Shia revivalist movement was germinating in Najaf, where Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini had lived in exile since late 1965, while restive youth was in the search of egalitarian models in early Islam or the Maoist paradigm. In Najaf, Ayatollah Khomeini elaborated a doctrine that in essence cast profane rulers as usurpers. The chapter follows the vicissitudes of his life in exile and the terms of his coexistence with the Baathist regime in Baghdad. The youth movement is discussed in its different facets; it is argued that unrest among the emerging middle-class youth was in part a phenomenon of the times and part of the worldwide anti-establishment zeitgeist in late 1960s.