Carter’s Quandary

  • Darioush Bayandor


Ambassador Sullivan was able to anticipate the fall of the Shah and speculate on a faith-based new regime. In a last-ditch effort, Carter asked the Shah to shed his human rights scruples and act decisively to restore order. The Shah’s negative reaction prompted an Iran policy review and inter-allied consultations that culminated in the Guadeloupe Summit in early January. Meanwhile Sullivan, in league with Secretary Vance, embarked on a scheme for accelerated regime change. Archive records presented provide evidence of unsuspected manipulations by the ambassador that bordered on perfidy. He and the State Department had misjudged the nature and the dynamics of the opposition forces in Iran, which yielded a different set of outcomes. In a distorted narrative in his 1981 memoirs, Sullivan tried to cover up his errors.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darioush Bayandor
    • 1
  1. 1.NyonSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations