Proposal of New Map Application for Distracted Walking When Using Smartphone Map Application

  • Tomoki KamiyamaEmail author
  • Mitsuhiko Karashima
  • Hiromi Nishiguchi
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 819)


This study aimed to propose a new map application that would reduce the time of looking at the map while walking to the degree of the time of reading the paper map and an experiment was conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed map application.

The proposed map application had a difference from Google Maps that the walker’s current position was shown on the map only when he/she stopped. In the experiment, the participants were required to walk three randomly assigned routes in KOMAZAWA Olympic Park General Sports Ground, respectively, by using the paper map, Google Maps, and the proposed map application. They equipped a wearable camera for recording the gaze direction during the experiment. After walking each route, they evaluated subjectively their workload while walking the route by using Japanese version of NASA-TLX.

The results of the experiment revealed that the number of stops walking to look at the proposed map application was significantly more than Google Maps. The results also revealed that the time of looking at the proposed map application while walking the route was significantly reduced in comparison with Google Maps. These meant that the proposed map application induced the walker to stop walking to look at the map and could reduce the distracted walking in comparison with Google Maps. The effectiveness of the proposed map was confirmed through the experiment.


Distracted walking Map application Smartphone 


  1. 1.
    Tokyo Fire Department. Accessed 20 Nov 2017
  2. 2.
    Telecommunications Carriers Association distracted walking survey. Accessed 20 Nov 2017
  3. 3.
    Shigeru H, Ayaka S, Yuri S, Hideka S, Saki Y, Kosuke M (2015) Effects of using a smart phone on pedestrians’ attention and walking. Procedia Manuf 3:2574–2580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shigeru H, Kanae F, Eri K, Yoshinori S, Azuri Y (2016) Effects on auditory attention and walking while texting with a smartphone and walking on stairs. In: HCII 2016 posters, part I, CCIS 617, pp 186–191Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Syuji Y, Hiroshi T, Kayoko T, Toru M, Takuya F (2017) Effects of smartphone use on behavior while walking. Urban Reg Plan Rev 7:138–150Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aoi N, Shin M, Kouhei I, Toshiki I, Keita S, Aya N, Daiki N, Kayoko S, Teppei A, Kunihiko A, Katsuyuki M, Jun H (2016) Influences of smartphone use while walking on gait parameters. Jpn J Health Promot Phys Ther 6(1):35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kazuhiro K (2016) Gaze measurement of a pedestrian texting while walking and a rider texting while riding a bicycle, and verification of dangerousness of texting. IEICE 10(2):129–136Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nasar J, Hecht P, Wener R (2008) Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety. Accid Anal Prev 40(1):69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schildbach B, Rukzio E (2010) Investigating selection and reading performance on a mobile phone while walking. In: Proceedings of the 12th conference on human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services, mobile HCI 2010, pp 93–102Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stavrinos D, Byington K, Schwebel D (2011) Distracted walking: cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians. J Saf Res 42(2):101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schwebel D, Stavrinos D, Byington K, Davis T, O’Neal E, Jong D (2012) Distraction and pedestrian safety: how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music impact crossing the street. Accid Anal Prev 45:266–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lu J-M, Lo Y-C (2017) Investigation of smartphone use while walking and its influence on one’s behavior among pedestrians in Taiwan. In: HCI 2017: HCI international 2017 - posters’ extended abstracts, pp 469–475Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beeharee A, Steed A (2006) A natural wayfinding-exploiting photos in pedestrian navigation. In: MobileHCI 2006. ACM Press, pp 81–88Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tomoki K, Mitsuhiko K (2017) Effects of using smartphone map application on walking behavior. Jpn J Ergon 53(Supplement1):S308–S309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yoshiaki T (1992) Sense of direction and its relationship with geographical orientation, personality traits and mental ability. Jpn J Educ Psychol 40(1):47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hart SG, Staveland LE (1988) Development of NASA-TLX (task load index); results of empirical and theoretical research. Adv Psychol 52:139–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shigeru H, Naoki M (1996) Japanese version of NASA task load index: sensitivity of its workload score to difficulty of three different laboratory tasks. Jpn J Ergon 32(2):71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoki Kamiyama
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mitsuhiko Karashima
    • 2
  • Hiromi Nishiguchi
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of Information and Telecommunication EngineeringTokai UniversityMinatoJapan
  2. 2.School of Information and Telecommunication EngineeringTokai UniversityMinatoJapan

Personalised recommendations