Simulation Techniques for Ergonomic Performance Evaluation of Manual Workplaces During Preliminary Design Phase
Among the technologies included in Industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution, Digital Manufacturing (DM) represents a new approach to evaluate the performance of production processes in a virtual environment.
DM can be seen as the industrial declination of Virtual Reality (VR) that, by using an integrated computer-based system, allows creating simulation, 3D visualization and provides different tools to define the product and the manufacturing process simultaneously.
Virtualization and simulation of production processes generate benefits for companies in terms of time and costs, optimizing the assembly line and providing parameters for studying human-machine interaction.
Regarding this last topic, the aim of this paper is to propose an innovative procedure to support the workplaces design, based on simulation techniques that allow setting a virtual scenario in which a Digital Human Model (DHM) is able to carry on assembly tasks. Data from simulations can be analyzed and used to assess ergonomic indexes in a preventive and proactive approach.
As other automotive manufacturers, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) applies EAWS (European Assessment Work Sheet), a first level screening, to assess the ergonomic biomechanical overload of workplaces in the design phase, according to international standards (ISO 11226 and ISO 11228-1, -2, -3).
The ergonomics risk assessment, since the design phase, allows identifying critical issues and to define and put in practice corrective actions in the earlier phase, being more successful and less expensive.
In order to support the procedure proposed in this research, a case study is described, based on the EAWS index evaluation of a workstation in a FCA plant assembly shop.
The simulation has been realized by using PLM software Tecnomatix Process Simulate by Siemens® and the EAWS analysis has been performed by using EAWSdigital by MTM®.
The procedure can be considered innovative to support human-centered design of production process in developing new products.
KeywordsDigital manufacturing Digital human models Simulation EAWS
- 1.Hovanec M, Korba P, Solc M (2015) Tecnomatix for successful application in the area of simulation manufacturing and ergonomics. In: 15th international SGEM geoconference on informatics, AlbenaGoogle Scholar
- 2.Spada S, Germanà D, Sessa F, Ghibaudo L (2015) FCA ergonomics approach in developing new cars: virtual simulation and physical validation. In: Proceedings 19th triennal congress of IEA, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
- 3.Vitiello M, Galante L, Capoccia M, Caragnano G (2012) Ergonomics and workplace design: application of ergo-UAS system in fiat group automobiles, work 41, pp 4445–4449Google Scholar
- 4.Schaub K, Caragnano G, Britzke B, Bruder R (2012) The European assembly worksheet. Theor Issues Ergon Sci 14(6):1–23Google Scholar
- 5.ISO 11226:2000 (2000) Ergonomics - evaluation of static working posturesGoogle Scholar
- 6.ISO 11228-1:2003(E) (2003) Ergonomics - manual handling - part 1: lifting and carryingGoogle Scholar
- 7.ISO 11228-2:2006(E) (2006) Ergonomics - manual handling - part 2: pushing and pullingGoogle Scholar
- 8.ISO 11228-3:2007(E) (2007) Ergonomics - manual handling - part 3: handling of low loads at high frequencyGoogle Scholar
- 9.International MTM Directorate. http://mtm-international.org/introduction-to-mtm-uas/ (online)
- 10.Caputo F, Greco A, D’Amato E, Notaro I, Spada S (2017) A preventive ergonomic approach based on virtual and immersive reality. In: Advanced in ergonomics in design: proceedings of the AHFE 2017, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
- 11.Directive 2006/42/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 17 May 2006 on May 2006 on machinery and amending Directive 95/16/EC (recast.) (2006)Google Scholar
- 12.Council directive 89/39/EEC of June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work (1989)Google Scholar
- 13.D.lgs. 9 aprile 2008, n.81 - TESTO UNICO SULLA SALUTE E SICUREZZA SUL LAVOROGoogle Scholar
- 14.NASA (1987) Man-system integration standard (NASA-STD-3000)Google Scholar
- 15.Schaub K, Wakula J, Berg K, Kaiser B, Bruder R, Glitsch U, Ellegast RP (2014) The assembly specific force atlas. Hum Factors Ergon Manuf Serv IndGoogle Scholar